Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas 2011, nr. 2 (2)

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  • Publication
    Biseksualių asmenų patirtys ir biseksualios socialinės tapatybės formavimasis Lietuvoje
    [The Experiences of bisexuals and the formation of bisexual social identity in Lithuania]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(2), p. 11-36
    The article focuses on the lives of bisexual men and women in lithuania. as a consequence of homophobia and heteronormativity in the country, bisexuality is regarded as at least to some extent an unacceptable set of sexual preferences and practices. Therefore, bisexuals as members of a subordinated social group are forced to deal with their negative identity and its consequences. The article analyzes how bisexuals as members of a negatively regarded social group construct their bisexual social identity and what main obstacles they encounter in doing it. The theoretical background of this study is based on henri tajfel’s social identity theory and on the integrated lGB (lesbian, Gay, Bisexual) identity formation stage model. eleven semi-structured interviews with bisexual men and women living in lithuania were conducted for this article. The study demonstrates that the bisexuals’ relation to the social reality is twofold. on the one hand, the emergence of bisexual social identity is rather slow in lithuania and in forming their identity bisexuals encounter a number of obstacles including monosexism and social ignorance. on the other hand, the participants of this research almost unanimously claimed that it is much easier to pursue a bisexual lifestyle in lithuania than a homosexual one. The main reason for it is the ability to switch their identities and to voice, in most cases, only a “part of the truth.” [...]
      158  172
  • Publication
    Sexuality, social marginalization and wounded masculinity : a male sex worker’s case
    [Seksualumas, socialinė marginalizacija ir sužeistas vyriškumas : sekso darbuotojo atvejis]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(2), p. 37-54
    A great number of men affected by rapid social, economic and political developments suffer severe marginalization due to their age, class, sexuality, disability and ethnicity in Lithuania. ,is paper examines the intersection of social marginalization, sexuality and masculinity. Using a Lithuanian male sex worker’s case, it argues that a dysfunctional family, poor employment and educational history and low socioeconomic status made his choice of sex work the means of survival. Differently from studies conducted in Europe and North America that suggest that enjoyment of sex was, in many cases, a reason for working as an escort, pleasurable sexual interactions with clients were not a critical reason for involvement in escorting in this case. ,e paper is based on an extensive semi-structured interview with a 27-year old male escort. ,e interview demonstrates that the Lithuanian sex worker both confirms and deconstructs the traditional male sexual script of erotic adventures (Gagnon and Simon 1973, 1984). On the one hand, he plays an active role both in sexual and non-sexual encounters and tries to look and act like a real man aspiring to the institutional gender script of hegemonic masculinity. On the other hand, he minimizes the risk in dealing with clients by not engaging in an unsafe sex, declining unwanted sexual practices and rejecting drugs. Besides pleasant memories of his generously paying clients who bolstered his sense of self, the escort is susceptible to societal condemnation, stigma, and self-doubt because he clearly considers his work as a conscious deviation from sexual and gender norms. Othering himself, the respondent expresses a subjective feeling of hopelessness and powerlessness that makes him miserable. Both powerlessness and the lack of imaginable future create a sense of his wounded and injured masculinity.
      31  106
  • Publication
    Socialinių darbuotojų vyrų nehegemoninio vyriškumo patirtys iš feministinės biografinio tyrimo perspektyvos
    [Male social workers’ non-hegemonic experiences from the feminist biographical research perspective]
    research article;
    Dorelaitienė, Agnė
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(2), p. 55-74
    The article focuses on male social workers’ constructions of their professional identity. To examine their professional identities, biographical method is used. It enabled the male social workers to reveal their constructions of identity, professional orientations and trajectories. @e analysis of the interviews with 26-59-year-old male social workers uncovers difficulties and conflicts in these men’s practices of masculinity. On the one hand, these men want to have status and power in a decision-making process; on the other hand, they desire to be good social workers and altruistic caregivers. @ey emphasize care, concern, emotional proximity and empathy as both the non-hegemonic practices and the main goals in their daily work. Realizing that they work in a feminized profession for a low salary, nonetheless, the interviewed men strive to be the best in it. Moreover, they are not afraid to admit that social work is their second profession chosen after the crises and difficulties in their personal lives. In narrating their stories, the men attempt to combine practices attributed to traditional hegemonic masculinity with the practices of a male caregiver. A further research should focus both on the particular patterns of a male care and specificities and complexities of masculine practices in the field of social work.
      89  67
  • Publication
    Karjeros moters galios išraiška ir pasiskirstymas šeiminėje veikloje
    [The expressions of career women’s power and gender roles in familial activities]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(2), p. 75-94
    The article analyzes the expression of career women’s power and gender roles in familial activities from the point of view of the respondents’ early childhood as well as their social and professional experience. Twenty semi-structured interviews with career women conducted in April, 2009, and in February and March, 2010, reveal the motives for their choice of a career, gender role models and the expression of power in their decision-making and conflict resolution in their families. The results of the empirical research show that most respondents do not transfer their status and power to the familial activities and decision-making. It appears that the couples usually follow the principles of cooperation, negotiation and comfort in making financial decisions or dealing with conflicts. They employ the egalitarian gender relations in their families. The empirical research demonstrates two dominant models of gender relations in the respondents’ families. In the first model, partners share the responsibilities of housekeeping and childcare with respect to women’s employment. Men adapt to women’s work schedules and get involved in household chores. In the second model, women achieve egalitarian gender relations by force and domination. They use their careers and jobs as a way to make men get involved in housekeeping and childcare.
      36  53
  • Publication
    Lietuvos meno laukas : jaunųjų meno kūrėjų požiūris
    [Lithuanian artistic field : an approach of the young artists]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(2), p. 95-120
    The article analyzes an artistic field and its perception by Lithuanian art creators. It discusses the meanings of being an artist in Lithuania, the structure of an artistic field and young art creators’ self-constructions. Firstly, the study focuses on Pierre Bourdieu’s sociological perspective. It argues that Pierre Bourdieu’s artistic field theory is one of the most important perspectives and methodological approaches in the sociology of art. The second part of this study focuses on the Lithuanian subfield of visual arts and the empirical qualitative research of young Lithuanian art creators’ habitus. The data analysis demonstrates that the Lithuanian artistic field is dominated within the field of power. The article also explores the structure of relations between the young artists’ position and positions occupied by other agents – art critics, other artists, the Contemporary Art Centre, the Lithuanian Artists Association, the Vilnius Academy of Arts, galleries etc. The research reveals the crucial importance of social capital in the practices of Lithuanian artists. Recognition and awards for artists from other agents of the artistic field are considered more significant than recognition gained from society or state institutions. Finally, the article examines artists’ dispositions towards the state and its cultural policy. In general, artists are neither positive nor negative towards the cultural policy, but the article discusses their negative attitudes towards the state’s system of support for the arts.
      67  119