International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach / Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris 2017, [vol.] 20

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  • Publication
    Emotional expressivity of alcohol dependent patients in different stages of motivation to refuse alcohol
    [Nuo alkoholio priklausomų žmonių emocijų raiškos skirtumai, esant skirtingoms motyvacijų stadijoms atsisakyti vartoti alkoholį]
    research article ;
    Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris = International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2017, Nr. 20, p. 9-22
    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences in emotional expressivity according to the motivation to refuse alcohol in a sample of alcohol dependent patients. Methods. The study sample consists of 142 alcohol-dependent patients (96 males and 46 females) undergoing treatment in Lithuania, Kaunas centre for addictive disorders. Emotional expressivity, motivation to refuse alcohol and alcohol dependency are measured by Lithuanian versions of The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES), Five Expressivity Facet Scale and AUDIT test. Results. Highly motivated alcohol-dependent males express more positive and negative emotions; also, they have significantly higher expressive confidence and higher emotional impulse intensity than those alcohol-dependent males with low motivation to refuse alcohol. Highly motivated alcohol-dependent females have higher emotional impulse intensity and they express more positive emotions comparing to low motivated females. Conclusions. Increased motivation to refuse alcohol is significantly related to some positive aspects of emotional expressivity. Highly motivated alcohol-dependent patients (both males and females) show higher emotional impulse intensity and higher expression of positive emotions. So, applied psychosocial interventions make significant changes in emotional expressivity and this perhaps is significant for the development of new perception of alcohol dependency and for making behavioural changes.
      143  148
  • Publication
    The changes of self-efficacy and perceived social support of addicted to alcohol women and men during treatment period
    [Nuo alkoholio priklausomų moterų ir vyrų saviveiksmingumo ir suvokiamo socialinio palaikymo pokyčiai gydymo metu]
    research article ;
    Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris = International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2017, Nr. 20, p. 23-40
    Background. In order to develop an effective alcohol and other psychoactive substance use prevention programs and improving addiction treatment methods, it is useful to determine the evolution of specific psychological factors of addiction disease during treatment. The aim of the research is to determine the changes in selfefficacy and perceived social support of alcohol-addicted men and women during the treatment. Method. The study included 101 alcohol-addicted persons, receiving treatment at Kaunas County Centre for Addictive Disorders (KCCAD) according to the Minnesota 12-step program. The study used M. Chesney Coping self-efficacy scale, R. M. Young, T. P. S. Oei & P. A. Hasking Drinking Refusal Self Efficacy Questionnaire – revised, G. D. Zimet, N. W. Dahlem, S. G. Zimet & G. K. Farley Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, C. M. Hart, T. D. Ritchie, E. G. Hepper & J. E. Gebauer The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding Short Form Results: the overall self-efficacy, drinking refusal self-efficacy and perceived social support of alcohol-addicted men and women at the end of treatment was higher than at the start of treatment. Changes in the overall self-efficacy, drinking refusal self-efficacy and perceived social support do not differ in alcohol-addicted men and women in the course of treatment. The results showed that there is a link between the overall self-efficacy, drinking refusal self-efficacy and perceived social support in alcohol-addicted women and men both at the start and at the end of treatment, when the participants age ranges from 40 to 59 years. A link has also been found between the overall self-efficacy and perceived social support after the treatment among the participants aged from 18 to 39 years. The Linear regression model showed that a change in drinking refusal self-efficacy in women can be predicted in regard to their perceived social support change [...]
      184  159
  • Publication
    Type D personality in cardiovascular patients and general population: prevalence and retrospective perception of stability
    [Asmenybės D tipas tarp kardiologinių pacientų ir bendrojoje populiacijoje: paplitimas ir retrospektyvusis stabilumo suvokimas]
    research article
    Lukoševičiūtė, Justė
    ;
    Šmigelskas, Kastytis
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 41-60
    Background and purpose. Type D personality is characterized by negative affectivity and social inhibition. This personality construct is linked to cardiovascular diseases and is considered as stable. However, there has been little research on prevalence in non-clinical samples and on stability of this construct. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and retrospective perception of stability of Type D personality in patients and general population. Methods. This was a cross-sectional study with a sample from general population (n=304) and cardiovascular patients (n=154). Type D was evaluated using DS14 questionnaire. Respondents were asked to assess their personal characteristics at the moment and how they felt 5 years ago. Items about health condition, lifestyle and sociodemographic characteristics were also included into questionnaire. Results. Type D personality was similarly prevalent in both study groups – 33.1% in cardiovascular patients and 35.9% in general population (p =.561). The prevalence of Type D based on retrospective assessment: during the last 5 years increased by 8.4% points in patients (p =.015) and by 0.4% points in comparison group (p =.472). In addition, Type D personality was associated with less healthy lifestyle in both study groups (p<.05) and also with a worse perceived health in comparison group (p<.001). Conclusions. Type D personality is similarly prevalent in general population and cardiovascular patients. However, this construct is considered as less stable among the patients. Type D personality was associated with less healthy lifestyle and in part with worse perceived health.
      142  74
  • Publication
    The role of a perceived ethical leadership style in the relationship between workaholism and occupational burnout
    [Subjektyviai suvokiamo etiško vadovavimo stiliaus reikšmė polinkio per daug dirbti ir profesinio pervargimo sąsajoms]
    research article ;
    Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris = International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2017, Nr. 20, p. 61-82
    Background. Academic literature has shown that working conditions created by ethical leaders might have positive as well as negative consequences for the employees. Research has revealed that it might contribute to employees’ workaholism and occupational burnout, but this relationship is still controversial. Purpose. The aim of the this study was to investigate the significance of a perceived ethical leadership style for the relationship between employees’ workaholism and occupational burnout. Method. The study involved 302 (41 men and 261 women) employees working in different Lithuanian organizations. A perceived ethical leadership style was assessed with the help of Brown, Trevino, & Harrison’s (2005) questionnaire. The 10-item Dutch Work Addiction Scale developed by Schaufeli, Taris, & Bakker (2009) was used for the measurement of workaholism. Occupational burnout was measured using Copenhagen Burnout Inventory by Kristensen, Borritz, Villadsen, & Christensen (2005). Results. The results revealed that workaholism, personal and work-related burnout of employees who consider their leaders as more ethical is lower than of those who consider their leaders to be less ethical. Relationship between client-related burnout and excessive work of the employees who consider their leaders as more ethical is weaker than of those, who consider their leaders to be less ethical. Conclusions. Overall, the findings support that employee attitudes towards their leader are important for the occupational burnout and proneness to workaholism. Therefore, an ethical leadership style must be considered when addressing physical and psychological well-being of employees.
      249  420
  • Publication
    Experience of workplace psychological harassment
    [Psichologinio persekiojimo darbe patyrimas]
    research article
    Sondaitė, Jolanta
    ;
    Vinciūnaitė, Gailė
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 83-103
    Background. In most countries workplace psychological harassment is a pronounced problem resulting in a number of negative consequences both for individuals and organizations. Profound understanding of this phenomenon may help foresee the start of psychological harassment, thereby protecting the employees and the very organization from negative consequences. Psychological harassment is mostly researched by using quantitative methods. It is important to reveal the manifestation of this phenomenon via the unique and individual experience of people who have undergone workplace psychological harassment. Purpose. To reveal the experience of people who have been affected by workplace psychological harassment. Methods. The participants were five people from 28 to 65 years old. All participants have experienced psychological harassment at work for at least 5 months. The data were collected through semi-structured interview. An interpretive phenomenological analysis was employed to achieve the goal. Results and conclusions. People who have experienced workplace psychological harassment tend to feel guilty and underestimate themselves. The analysis revealed the occurrence of this phenomenon which affects the dignity of a person: screaming, harsh / abusive communication, etc. The participants who suffered from workplace psychological harassment have experienced a variety of negative psychological consequences: strong, deep emotional reactions, such as despair, guilt, helplessness, etc. The analysis has also revealed the psychical consequences caused by painful experience: headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, weight loss, insomnia, etc.
      192  147