Rural Development 2017: Bioeconomy Challenges: Proceedings of the 8th International Scientific Conference

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  • research article
    Klavins, Ivars
    Bardule, Arta
    Libiete, Zane
    Akademija : Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017
    While conventional forest management in boreal and hemiboreal conditions has traditionally been targeted to use and enhance mainly provisioning services like timber production, the main goal of national and European forest policy is to ensure sustainable management of European forests in all aspects. Regeneration felling is a major disturbance in boreal and hemiboreal forests resulting in significant increase of organic matter on the forest floor in the form of logging residues (bark, small branches, tree tops) and severed roots (in case of stump harvesting), and can increase the risk of nutrient leaching. Recently, concern about the effect of forest management impact on macronutrient leaching potentially decreasing nutrient availability for the next forest generations and causing deterioration of water quality has been raised. In 2011, three objects to study the impact of different intensity regeneration felling (stem-only harvesting and whole-tree harvesting) were established in scientific research forests in Kalsnava forest district, eastern part of Latvia. Two sites were located on mineral soils (Myrtillosa and Hylocomiosa site type, dominant tree species Pinus sylvestris L.) and one on drained peat soil (Oxalidosa turf. mel. site type, dominant tree species Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Felling was performed in early spring 2013 with harvester, timber was extracted and logging residues were removed with forwarder, following “business as usual” principle. Soil solution samples were collected once or twice a month in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. This study presents trends of pH and macronutrient (NO3--N, PO43--P, K) concentrations during five years – one year before harvesting and four years following harvesting. In general, significant forest management impact expressed as increase of macronutrient concentrations in soil solution was detected in the second and third year after harvesting, but in the fourth year concentrations started to decrease again.
      8  3
  • research article
    Amirov, Marat
    Serzhanov, Igor
    Shaykhutdinov, Farid
    Semushkin, Nicolay
    Rural development 2017 : bioeconomy challenges : proceedings of the 8th international scientific conference, 23-24 November, 2017, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017, p. 1-5
    The article presents results of studies of influence of controlled and environmental factors on production process of different varieties of spring wheat carried out in different soil and climatic conditions of Middle Volga region. The forest-steppe area of the Volga region is one of regions of Russia favorable for spring wheat growing by its natural and climatic conditions. Unbalance of nutrition elements in soil, acid soil and predominantly heavy-textured soil hamper the yield growth. Out of all factors vital for plants (light, heat, moisture and nutrition elements) under consideration, providing plants with nutrition elements and moisture are those limiting high crop yields. he objective of our studies is increasing the crop yield with the simultaneous decrease of the produced goods cost makes it necessary to calculate in advance the possible yield level depending on the influence of different factors: environmental, crop variety and etc. The aim of our studies was to develop methods of growing high yield and high quality crops of different varieties of wheat adjusted for conditions of the forest-steppe black soil in the Volga region. Methods of research using field and laboratory tests, the method of state variety tests of agricultural cultures, phenoldisulfonic acid method, finite difference method, disperse analysis method. A set of observations, records and analysis was carried out during the experiments with implementation Russian methodological guidelines and National State Standards. Statistical processing of the yield data, economic and energy estimates was carried out by the methods recommended by Russia Scientific Research Institute of Agricultural Economy and Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences. Having carried out the analysis of natural resources and genetic potential of the wheat varieties, systems of plant nutrition optimization and influence of their predecessors, we have obtained new data about possibility of increasing the spring durum wheat arable area. We have shown the role of different forms of using nitrogenous fertilizers (on the background of phosphorus – potassium ones) in the increase of productivity and improvement of the spring wheat grain quality. An established optimal norm for Gramma variety spring spelt corn seeding has been established for the conditions of the grey forest soil in the Fore-Kama region of the Republic of Tatarstan and the influence of their nutrition on yield has been found.
      6  31
  • research article
    Arlauskienė, Aušra
    Gecaitė, Viktorija
    Jablonskytė-Raščė, Danutė
    Rural development 2017 : bioeconomy challenges : proceedings of the 8th international scientific conference, 23-24 November, 2017, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017, p. 6-10
    Research was carried out at the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry’s (LAMMC) Joniškėlis Experimental Station on a clay loam Endocalcari Endohypogleyic Cambisol. The study was aimed to explore the aboveground mass of perennial forage legumes: red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.), and their mixtures with festulolium (x Festuliolium), used as green manure, qualitative parameters and compatibility with cereals on the basis of nutrients nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The deficiency of other nutrients (P, K) and intensity of green manure mineralization can lead to N absorption. It has been determined that winter wheat takes one kg of N together with 0.2 kg P and 0.6 kg K. Spring wheat requires a similar amount of P but a higher amount of K. Average winter wheat grain yield can be 4.0 t ha-1 on a clay loam Cambisol in organic cropping system. NPK content – 134 kg ha-1 is needed for such productivity (grain + straw). This content is lower for spring winter growing. P:N and K:N ratios are more favourable in perennial forage legume mixture with festulolium, as compared to legume alone. To obtain grain yields of 4 t ha-1 of winter wheat and 3 t ha-1 of spring wheat in balanced organic crop rotation it is sufficient to apply 3.0 and 2.0 t ha-1 DM of pure legume mass as green manure. “Cut-and-carry” fertilisers do not satisfy the wheat demand for P.
      4  22
  • research article
    Ascani, Michela
    Martino, Gaetano
    Rural development 2017 : bioeconomy challenges : proceedings of the 8th international scientific conference, 23-24 November, 2017, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017, p. 11-16
    The objective of the paper is investigating food networks (FNs), focusing on the emerging of recurring themes in literature and investigating how the networks relationships may influence the resources uses in farming activities. The research was carried out through access to Web of Science and Scopus databases in order to investigate the literature on FNs. The period considered is 2000- 2016, using as selected key words food networks, food and practices, alternative food networks. Then we selected and classified the resulting articles and identified a set of themes addressed in literature. The main outcome of this analysis is the identification of the following themes: a) common/shared FNs characteristics; b) trust creation and embeddedness facilitated by face to face relations; c) role of FNs in transformation of food systems towards social, environmental and health objectives; d) food citizenship/sovereignty-civil engagement; e) values inspiring FNs objectives, namely sustainability, fairness/social justice, health protection, ethical consumption/political action; f) governance of the consumers-producers relations. We argue that identified themes are dimensions related to FNs objectives. More precisely we then conceptualize the identified characteristics as drivers of the ranking of resource uses in farming systems. Elaborating on this idea we derive principles for supporting the design of governance of these groups. The study concludes pointing out the complexity of food networks and their capability to influence the resources uses by setting up flexible but resilient governance structures.
      3  12
  • research article
    Bielski, Stanisław
    Falkowski, Jan
    Rural development 2017 : bioeconomy challenges : proceedings of the 8th international scientific conference, 23-24 November, 2017, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 2017, p. 17-23
    The present investigations were undertaken, in which the winter triticale cultivar Twingo was examined, with the aim of analyzing production output, expressed by grain yield and its structure, as affected by different levels of nitrogen and magnesium fertilisation and assess and compare the economic efficiency of production technologies. This research encompassed the results of a three-year (2013-2015) field experiment conducted at the Research Station in Tomaszkowo near Olsztyn, Poland. The experiment was set up in a random, split-plot design, with four replications. The first order factor was nitrogen fertilisation (kg ha-1 ): 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150. The second order factor was the level of magnesium fertilisation (kg ha-1 ): 0 and 5 kg MgSO4∙7H2O. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the grain yield was significantly affected by the year of the trial, nitrogen and magnesium fertilisation, interaction of the first and second factors was not proven. The method based on the standard gross margin (SGM) was used for the economic evaluation of the three production technology differentiated costs levels. Three technologies with the highest, medium and lowest average yields were selected to the comparison. Differences in compared technologies concerned to the date and dose of nitrogen and magnesium fertilisation. Results showed, that increasing intensity of winter triticale technology in the field trial, caused the higher financial yield value of winter triticale, as well as direct costs and direct surplus. The direct surplus was higher by 24.4% between the lowest and the highest winter triticale technologies. The highest yield technology was characterized by the highest profitability.
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