OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos 2006, nr. 2

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  • Publication
    “At Home” in Migration: Construction of Home by Polish and Lithuanian Migrants in the UK
    [„Namų “ kūrimas migracijoje: lenkai ir lietuviai migrantai Jungtinėje Karalystėje]
    research article
    Parutis, Violetta
    OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos, 2006, nr. 2, p. 9-29
    Namai, jų kūrimas, tai, kur mes jaučiamės namie, su kuo mes jais dalijamės ir kaip mes savo namus žymime – visi šie elementai neabejotinai daro įtaką mūsų identitetui. Šis straipsnis analizuoja, kaip namai kuriami migracijoje ir ką jie reiškia patiems migrantams. Tai platesnio doktorantūros projekto tema. Šis straipnis parašytas reimiantis 46 išsamiais pokalbiais su pastaraisiais metais į Jungtinę Karalystę atvykusiais lietuvių ir lenkų migrantais. Straipsnio išvados parodo, kad namų kūrimo procesas migracijos sąlygomis susijęs su simboline ir materialine namų sąvokomis. Šiame straipsnyje analizuojami tik kai kurie namų kūrime dalyvaujantys elementai: socialinis statusas, nekilnojamojo turto nuosavybė, priklausymas tam tikrai bendruomenei, šeima, gimtojo krašto ilgesys ir Europos pilietybė.
      146  216
  • Publication
    Antropologinė „namų“ idėjos perspektyva : lietuvių diasporos žmonių tikslas ar saugi vieta „judant“?
    [An anthropological persprctive on the idea of "home": a diaspora goal or a safe place while "on the move"?]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2006, nr. 2, p. 30-42
    In the hope of elucidating how diaspora Lithuanians “returning” to Lithuania understand the term “home”, what symbols, relics, and activities this concept embraces, where this “home” is for them, and why and how this process takes place—is it a return or just a “moving around” in global space?—this paper presents the results of a field investigation carried out in the summer of 2005, along with the theoretical perspectives and academic sources used. Anthropological methods, such as participant observation, observation, and open question qualitative interviews, allow us to hear the informants’s words “live” articulated in the key concepts they themselves use in order that we may understand from their own perspective what the real experience of those “returning” is like.
      71  117
  • Publication
    Ar vaikas išgyvena krizę? : tyrinėjant laikinosios darbo migracijos įtaką vaikui
    [Is a child undergoing a crisis?: exploring the impact of temporary labour migration on a child]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2006, nr. 2, p. 43-53
    The article introduces and analyses the peculiarities of the impact of temporary labour migration on a child in Lithuania. Temporary labour migration is a specific form of migration when one or both parents go to work abroad leaving their nuclear family. This topic received little attention for two reasons: the impact of illegal migration on a family when information about a person who left illegally was concealed, and the scholarly tradition to analyse migration from macro perspectives. The article deals from an analytical perspective with a child's experiences after his/her parents left to work abroad. According to the theories of attachment and children in crises, the hypothesis that all preteen children whose parents work abroad had to experience a crisis was proposed. To support the hypothesis, data from the quantitative research study Trends and Peculiarities of Labour Emigration in Kaunas as well as those from a structurized interview with 15 kindergarten teachers were used.
      71  117
  • Publication
    Lietuvos vyriausybė ir Pirmojo pasaulinio karo pabėgėlių repatriacija į Lietuvą, 1918–1924 m.
    [The Lithuanian government and the repatriation to Lithuania of WWI refugees from 1918 to 1924]
    research article
    Balkelis, Tomas
    OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos, 2006, nr. 2, p. 55-74
    The article explores how population displacement operated in independent Lithuania in the immediate post-WWI period. The author argues that population displacement presented the Lithuanian authorities with an opportunity to claim and to establish WWI refugees as potential members of a new nation- state, thereby defining its spatial, demographic, and cultural boundaries. According to rough estimates, the total number of Lithuanian refugees who settled in the Russian interior stood at 550,000 at the beginning of 1918. The article explores their fate in the immediate post-war period as well as the official policies the new Lithuanian state adopted towards the refugees. One of the key premises is that the logic of the homogenising nation-state required that the refugees had to be persuaded to abandon their identities born in exile and rooted down in the single space of the national homeland. Nevertheless, the spatial pattern of ‘the homeland’ was still in flux, due to the border wars between Lithuania, Soviet Russia, and Poland in 1918-1920. As a result, some refugees, as in the case of those from Vilnius and Grodno areas, could not be integrated into the ranks of Lithuanian citizenry. Their difficult situation was further aggravated by famine in Russia in 1921, which called at least for limited international cooperation between Soviet Russia, Lithuania, Poland, and Latvia. On the one hand, the refugees served as a focus for the propaganda of the belligerent states, while on the other hand their uncontrollable movement compelled governments to co-operate internationally. For many refugees their first encounters with the symbols and institutions of an independent Lithuanian state were crucial in shaping their ‘fixed’ national, as opposed to ‘itinerant’ multicultural, identities. Yet those symbols of state power were read and interpreted in the light of their experience of displacement.
      159  125
  • Publication
    Lietuvių kolonijų kūrimo planai 1918-0940 metais
    [Plans for creating Lithuanian colonies abroad (1918-1940)]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2006, nr. 2, p. 75-94
    In this article the author reviews plans envisaged in the first Republic of Lithuania for creating Lithuanian colonies abroad. The purpose of such a planned colonization was to provide an alternative for ongoing emigration processes not controlled by the state. Colonization was understood to be the creation of a maximal number of ethnic settlements in as many foreign lands as possible. In this way it was sought to protect Lithuanians who chose to emigrate from the threat of losing their national identity and from sundry economic, social, and cultural problems. Plans by various authors for establishing such colonies, as well as the possibilities for their implementation, are analyzed; and the position of state officials on this question is presented. The locations that, according to the enthusiasts of the colonization idea, might be suitable for Lithuanian emigrants are enumerated, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The first to broach the idea of establishing colonies was Professor Kazys Pakštas; later other intellectuals showed an interest in this idea. Most frequently mentioned as possible countries for planned colonization by Lithuanians were Canada, Alaska, South Africa, Angola, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay. It was hoped that a colony, once formed, would actively cooperate with Lithuania in the fields of commerce and culture and that mutually beneficial exchanges would ensue.
      609  149