Darbai ir dienos / Deeds and Days 2018, nr. 70

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Leidybą rėmė Europos socialinis fondas / Publication sponsored by European Social Fund
  1. Viršelis / Cover
  2. Informacija apie Darbai ir dienos / Information about Deeds and Days 2018, nr. 70
  3. http://dx.doi.org/10.7220/2335-8769.70

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  • Publication
    Garsažodžių dažnumas, funkcijos ir reikšmės ankstyvojoje vaikystėje
    [Frequency, function, and meanings of onomatopoeias in early childhood]
    research article;
    Darbai ir dienos. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2018, T. 70, p. 11-29
    The aim of the article is to discuss language development (from the beginning to the end of the formation of grammatical system) from the perspective of the use of onomatopoeias, focusing on the change of frequency of onomatopoeias, their meanings, and functions during the period under the present investigation. The research data is comprised of a corpus of six children’s language, which was compiled using the method of longitudinal observation. The research has revealed that onomatopoeias are used very frequently in child language. Contrary to some theoretical sources on the meaning of onomatopoeias, they acquire not only the emotive- expressive, but also a nominal meaning: they replace various verbs and nouns. The research has also indicated that onomatopoeias are frequent in child language because of the parents’ language influence, emotional and expressive communication environment, iconic nature of onomatopoeias, uncomplicated structure, and simple articulation. In addition, the meaning of onomatopoeias is often broadened, using them to refer to several concepts. The results of the statistical analysis have indicated that the frequency of the use of onomatopoeias is statistically significantly different in typical and atypical (twin) language development: in the case of typical language development, the number of onomatopoeias decreases, while this tendency has not been observed in early twin language.
      462  172
  • Publication
    Dalelytė "ir" – aprašai ir vartosena dabartinėje rašytinėje lietuvių kalboje
    [The particle "ir" – descriptions and usage in contemporary standard written Lithuanian]
    research article
    Darbai ir dienos. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2018, T. 70, p. 31-56
    As stated in Lithuanian grammars, the particle ir (also) is used to single out, intensify, and connect words, phrases, and sentences. In Lithuanian dictionaries, ir is considered to be not only a particle but also an adverb. In the current study, the lexical unit ir is viewed as a conjunction and as a particle. Thus, when selecting the instances of the particle ir, it was, first of all, established whether ir functions as a conjunction, which connects homogeneous parts of a sentence or sentences. In all other cases, ir was treated as a particle. In total, 33,339 cases of the usage of ir were found; however, ir as a particle was used in 2,716 instances. Besides, it was found that in 1781 cases the particle ir was used after conjunctions, linking words and other particles. In most cases, the particle ir is used with nouns and noun phrases, when it is important to emphasize their meaning, for example: Aš ir arbatos išvirčiau. (I would make some tea as well.) Sometimes, the particle ir is used with nouns in order to complement them. In such cases, the particle ir corresponds to multi-word particles taip pat, taip pat ir, for example: Tokį pat poveikį sukelia ir kofeinas, alkoholis ar padidėjęs nervingumas. (The same effect is also caused by caffeine, alcohol, or increased anxiety.) When the particle ir is used before verbs, adjectives, and adverbs, it performs an emphatic function. If the particle ir is used before pronouns or pronoun phrases, it functions as an additive particle. Moreover, when used before prepositional constructions, the particle ir may perform both additive and emphatic functions. Thus, in most cases, the particle ir is emphatic, whereas its other functions depend on the part of speech of the word it emphasizes and the context. The particle ir also interacts with a functional sentence perspective. [...].
      1166  393
  • Publication
    Ekspresionistinis kalbos vaizdumas Almio Grybausko "Atklydimuose"
    [Imagism of expressionistic language in Almis Grybauskas's "Atklydimai"]
    research article
    Darbai ir dienos. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2018, T. 70, p. 57-75
    The article aims to actualize the unresearched intrinsic features of expressionism and rectify the peculiarities of poet’s writing style by analyzing the poetry of Almis Grybauskas’s, a poet and translator, from his collection Atklydimai (1983). It presents expressionism in the context of a more extensive phenomenon, i.e. literay imagism. This article also takes into consideration the principle of defamiliarization that is typical to Grybauskas’s poetic language. By analyzing 3 texts of his more closely, it exposes the function of expressionist stylistic devices (the creation of integrity of form and content, perspective (motifs of road and journey), the effect of ‘vision’ and awkwardness, the delay of understanding). In the course of analysis it becomes clear that Grybauskas’s expressionism is set up not so much on visuality that is based on external effects (i.e., exogenous graphic form), as on the picturesqueness of language that is oriented towards the structure and the dynamic act of communication (i.e., its intrinsic features). And this allows one to associate Grybauskas’s texts with the German expressionism tradition. The article also reveals that the articulation of expressionism in the texts written by the poet who made his debut in the late Soviet period essentially contradicts the aim of the socialist realism discourse to represent reality in a biased way. Grybauskas’s poetry establishes an autonomous perception of reality, which enables the reader to see the structure that is made from language as a species of spiritual culture.
      161  92
  • Publication
    Simonas Daukantas ir Pranciškus Malevskis Lietuvos metrikos archyve
    [Simonas Daukantas and Pranciškus Malevskis in the Lithuanian Metrica archives]
    research article
    Girininkienė, Vida
    Darbai ir dienos, 2018, nr. 70, p. 79-87
    Šis straipsnis skirtas ne Simono Daukanto ar Pranciškaus Malevskio biografijoms, o išskirtiniam momentui, kurį galima suvokti tik per epochos prizmę. Epocha pavergtoje šalyje visada buvo įvairialypė, vienais atvejais skatinusi priešintis, kitais – prisitaikyti, tad kuriantis žmogus turėjo gyventi dvilypį gyvenimą, vieną – viduje, kitą – išorėje. Daukantas su dideliu vargu pasiekė savo tikslą, įsidarbino LDK dokumentų, Lietuvos Metrikos, archyve, kuris buvo saugomas Valdančiajame senate, tačiau ten jo rankos buvo surištos. Carinės valdžios įstatymai draudė viešinti archyvo dokumentus, o nuorašai ir išrašai nesugulė į atskirus leidinius. Šiandien Daukantą galime laikyti rašytoju, istoriku, kalbininku, publicistu, tautosakininku, 15 metų Sankt Peterburge dirbusį visose lietuvių tautai reikalingose srityse. Taigi kas skatino Daukantą veržtis į Rusijos šiaurinę sostinę, kurioje dėl klimato, svetimos kalbos ir valdiškų „teroro laikų“ įstatymų jis nesijautė savas ir reikalingas? Lietuvos, Sankt Peterburgo ir Maskvos archyvuose rasta naujų duomenų apie aplinkybes, galėjusias padėti Daukantui įsidarbinti Valdančiajame senate, į kurį patekti be įtakingų pažįstamų, ypač po 1830–1831 m. sukilimo, vargu ar buvo įmanoma. Nauji tyrimai leistų teigti, kad jam padėjo Vilniaus gimnazijos ir universiteto bendramokslis Pranciškus Malevskis.
      194  97