Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/35026
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Zdanavičiūtė, Ieva
Title: Ar asmens pripažinimas emancipuotu gali turėti įtakos jo teisėms, pareigoms ir atsakomybei baudžiamojoje teisėje?
Other Title: Does the emancipation of a person affect his rights, obligations and liability in the criminal law?
Extent: 39 p.
Date: 2-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Emancipacija;Vaiko sąvoka;Baudžiamoji teisė;Criminal law;Emancipatio;Child
Abstract: Nei viename Lietuvos įstatyme nėra užsimena, kaip turi būti traktuojamas emancipuotas asmuo ir ar asmens pripažinimas emancipuotu turi įtakos baudžiamojoje teisėje. Taip pat, nerandama normų, kurios reglamentuotų, ar baudžiamajame procese emancipuotas asmuo gali naudotis suteiktomis procesinėmis garantijomis nepilnamečiams. Nors, iš vienos pusės emancipacija neturėtų daryti įtakos baudžiamojoje teisėje, tačiau esamas tik formalaus amžiaus ribos kriterijus, nustatinėjant asmens teisinį statusą, nėra pakankamas. Tiriamojo darbo objektas – emancipuoto nepilnamečio teisės, pareigos, atsakomybė baudžiamojoje teisėje. Darbe buvo analizuojami nacionaliniai ir tarptautiniai teisės aktai, kurie reglamentuoja nepilnamečio teisinį statusą ir procesines garantijas baudžiamojoje teisėje, emancipacijos institutas, teismų praktika. Atlikus tyrimą, nustatyta, kad baudžiamajame įstatyme nėra apibrėžta ,,vaiko“ sąvoka, todėl gali būti netinkamai kvalifikuota nusikalstama veika (LR BK 159 str., LR BK 162 str., LR BK 164 str.). Visgi, sistemiškai aiškinant baudžiamąjį įstatymą, tam tikrų nusikalstamų veikų subjektai galėtų būti tik pilnamečiai, nors pačiame įstatyme tai nėra imperatyviai numatyta. Todėl, už tokių normų pažeidimą galėtų atsakyti baudžiamosios atsakomybės amžiaus ribą pasiekę asmenys. Kitaip tariant, emancipuotas asmuo turėtų atsakyti už tokių normų pažeidimą, nes yra sulaukęs amžiaus, nuo kurio kyla baudžiamoji atsakomybė. Tad, emancipacija neturi tam jokios įtakos. Nors emancipuotas asmuo teoriškai turi socialinės brandos įgūdžius, tačiau šiuo metu neįmanoma nustatyti, kiek asmens branda civilinėje teisėje yra branda baudžiamojoje teisėje. O todėl, kad Lietuvoje nėra apibrėžtos socialinės brandos sąvokos ir metodikos jai ištirti. Tyrimo metu nustatyta, kad emancipuotas nepilnametis turėtų netekti procesinių garantijų, tokių kaip specifinės nepilnamečių apklausų taisyklės ir būtinas gynėjo dalyvavimas pagal LR BPK 51 straipsnio 1 dalies 1 punktą, nes teisėje nebėra laikomas vaiku. Be to, gauti rezultatai parodė, kad emancipuotas nepilnametis privalėtų atsakyti už procesinių pareigų nevykdymą baudžiamajame procese. Apibendrinant, darytina išvada, kad šis darbas – aktualus. Be to, atlikus tyrimą matoma, kad baudžiamosios teisės praktikoje nėra atsižvelgiama į emancipacijos instituto metu tirtus asmens ypatumus, todėl kyla daugybė neaiškumų.
Law clearly lays down the age limit, which shows when a person is considered to have reached a lawful age, from which a person can acquire full legal capacity. Also, Lithuania law establishes the age limit, which shows when a person can be held liable under the criminal law. However, Lithuanian laws do not have this regulation, which can suggest how an emancipated person should be considered in the criminal law and does the emancipation of a person affect the criminal law. Even more so, regulations do not describe how the procedural guarantees for minors can be transferred to emancipated minors in the criminal process. In addition, the Lithuanian laws do not have this regulation, which can describe whether a crime against emancipated minor can be called a crime against the child. Also, there is no case-law where courts applied the emancipation as one of the criteria of minor’s status. On the one hand, the emancipation institute, which is only used in the civil law, should not affect the criminal law. But on the other hand, that only exist the formal age criteria in the criminal law, is not sufficient. Therefore, both the civil law and the international law legislatures are using not only formal age criteria, but also emancipation as the criteria, when regulating the legal status of the person. Emancipated minors may independently acquire and fully exercise their rights and duties. The Court acknowledgment for a person to be emancipated is guided by the fact that this person has reached the age of full ability to evaluate his own behaviour. This leads to the conclusion that the Court also assumes that a person has reached the social maturity of an adult, so in the social and legal terms may become the adult, too. Thus, the object of the research is the emancipated minor rights, obligations and liability in the criminal law. In order to provide an answer to the question, which was raised at the beginning of the work, national and international law acts, regulating the status of minors in the criminal law, the institute of the emancipation and the case-law were analyzed. The study tasks: - To disclose the concept of the emancipation; - To investigate the ability to consider the social maturity of a person in the civil law same as the social maturity of a person in the criminal law; - To investigate the emancipation impact on the criminal liability; - To investigate the concept of the child not sticking to the age criteria to certain offences in the criminal law; - To determine whether a crime against the emancipated minor can be considered as a crime against the child; - To investigate whether the emancipated person may lose procedural guarantees, which are exceptional granted only for minors. During the process of the work theoretical research methods and empirical research methods were used. These methods helped to analyze the national and international law acts, the scientific publications and the case - law. Also, these methods helped to make final scientific conclusions of the research. Results of the study revealed that the legislature does not properly disclose the concept of “a child” in the certain offences (art. 159, art. 162 and art. 164 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania), which can lead to inappropriate classification of the offences. In addition, a systematic interpretation of the Criminal Code, revealed that only a person of a legal age can be a subject for certain crimes. However, they are not imperative norms. It means that a person who had reached the age limit from which he/she can be held liable under the criminal law, also, could be held liable for the violation of these norms. In other words, emancipated person should also be held liable for the violation of these norms, because he has reached the age limit. Nevertheless, emancipated minor maturity skills theoretical are the same as adult’s social maturity skills. However, the study showed that, in practise, the social maturity, as the criteria of minor’s status in the criminal law, is only assumed, but not investigated in every case, because there is no concept of the social maturity in the legislature and there are no methods, describing how to investigate it. It means that there is no possibility to determine how much the maturity of a person in the civil law could be the same as the maturity of a person in the criminal law. Results also showed that, emancipated minor may become a subject to certain procedural guarantees as adult in the criminal process. In addition, the study found that emancipated minor could be held liable for the failure to comply with procedural obligations. To the conclusion, this study must be considered important. However, the research confirmed that the personal feature investigated at the time when the institute of the emancipation was applicable, in the practice of the criminal law does not apply at all.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/35026
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/35026
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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