|Abstract: ||Šio magistro darbo tikslas yra atsakyti į klausimą, ar sutartyse numatytas Europos Sąjungos bendrųjų vertybių apsaugos mechanizmas? Europos Sąjungos Sutarties (ESS) 2 straipsnyje aprašomos įtvirtintos Europos Sąjungos pamatinės vertybės. Šiame straipsnyje įvardijamos šios Europos Sąjungos vertybės: pagarba žmogaus orumui, laisvė, demokratija, lygybė, teisinė valstybė ir pagarba žmogaus teisėms, įskaitant mažumoms priklausančių asmenų teises. Šios vertybės yra bendros valstybėms narėms, kuriomis valstybės narės turėtų vadovautis. Šiomis vertybėmis turi vadovautis bei jų laikytis valstybės kandidatės į ES. Darbe tiriami Europos Sąjungos teisiniai vertybių pagrindai. Apžvelgiamos Europos Sąjungos sutartis ir tu pačiu nusatoma kada ir kokiomis priemonėmis yra galimas ES vertybių apsaugojimas. Šiuo metu ES krečiančios krizės kelia vis daugiau klausimų, kaip bus apsaugotos ESS 2 straipsnyje įtvirtintos vertybės, todėl darbe keliamas klausimas - kaip veikia ES vertybių apsaugos mechanizmas, kuris yra įtvirtintas Europos Sąjungos Sutarties 7 straipsnyje. ESS 7 straipsnis numato ESS 2 straipsnio, t.y. pamatinių vertybių, apsaugos mechanizmą. Darbe apžvelgiama, kokioms sąlygoms esant ES gali imtis pamatinių vertybių apsaugos ir kokiomis priemonėmis. ESS 2 straipsnyje yra išdėstytos pamatinės ES vertybės, kuriomis ir yra grindžiama visa Sąjunga. Būtent ESS 7 straipsnis ir yra tas apsaugos mechanizmas, kuris turi apsaugoti ir padėti imtis priemonių prieš valstybė narę, kuri galimai pažeidė ESS 2 straipsnyje numatytas vertybes. Tačiau, ESS 7 straipsnio pritaikymas yra labai sudėtingas. ESS 7 straipsnyje yra numatyti atvejai, kada ir kokiais būdais galima imtis veiksmų prieš valstybę narę, kuri galimai pažeidė ESS 2 straipsnyje numatytas pamatines vertybes.|
This masters work objective is to answer a question, do the treaties in Europe Union have security measurements for common values? The fundamental values of Europe Union are written in TEU article 2 of Europe Union treaties. In this Europe Union article they mention these values: respect for human dignity, freedom, democracy, equality, rule of law and respect for human rights, including the rights of people who belong to minority groups. These values are common for all member nations and all of the must abide them. All candidate members to the EU have to abide the same rules. The paper analyzes the basic legal values of European Union. It reviews the treaties and at the same time it determines when and what possible protection can be applied to the values of the EU.
The current crises that are shaking Europe Union, raise a question how will the values in TEU article 2 be protected, that is why in this paper we raise the question – how does the security mechanism, that is enshrined in TEU article 7 of Europe Union treaty, work in securing the values of EU. The TEU article 7 of Europe Union treaty supervises the securities of the fundamental values that are established in article 2 of EU treaty. In the paper we also overview under what conditions and by what means can EU take action in protecting the fundamental values. Europe Union is based on the values that are written in TEU article 2 of Europe Union treaty. Precisely TEU article 7 of Europe Union Treaty is the mechanism that is responsible for protection and helping in taking action against member nation that has supposedly violated the values established in TEU article 2 of Europe Union Treaty. However the application of TEU article 7 of Europe Union Treaty is very complex. TEU article 7 of Europe Union Treaty foresee cases of how and when to apply action against member nations that have supposedly violated the values established in TEU article 2 of Europe Union Treaty. There are two scenarios in TEU article 7 of Europe Union Treaty which are in no way formally associated with each other: preventive sanctions are not necessarily applied against the member nation (recommendations can be offered to the member nation) that has supposedly violated or is systematically violating the fundamental EU values. In other case there could be a real sanction, but which at this time is still in theoretical level, like suspending the voting rights of the nation member in the EU leader council. For EU to decide that there is a real threat against values established in TEU article 2 of Europe Union Treaty, EU council has to receive a proposal from at least one third of member nations, Europe parliament or Europe commission, then receive approval from Europe Parliament that needs two thirds of votes, then the Europe leader council with a majority of four-fifths could decide that there is a clear danger that a member nation can violate the fundamental EU values that are written in TEU article 2. In the case that the decision was made that the fundamental values in TEU article 2 of Europe Union Treaty could be violated, Europe Union leader council, with a vote of united majority, has to make a judgment if any of the nation members has violated the values mentioned in TEU article 2. United majority vote – is a vote that includes all 28 member nations representatives voting united on the subject. Abstention from voting does not prevent it from happening. Deciding especially sensitive questions like the crisis in Poland – a United majority vote is impossible, because it is a delicate political situation. Poland is number 6 in EU ranked in economics, and number 1 in eastern Europe. So It raises a question if there will be any one with the political will to vote for the sanctions against such a member nation
The main task of TEU article 7 of Europe Union treaty – security of fundamental values in EU. Accordingly, this article seeks to protect the values of EU, without considering in whose particular competence it belongs: EU has the right to intervene even in those areas that nation members council them selves. According to the European commissions communication conclusion about Europe Union treaty article 7, in a case of a member nation violates harshly the fundamental values that it would fall in the category of Europe Union Treaty article 7, it is likely, that this action undermines the fundaments of EU and the trust between the members, no matter in what field the violation occurred
According to the treaty TFEU 269 article, it can be concluded, that the competence to make decisions about applying article 7 of Europe Union treaty, belongs to the jurisdiction of the European court of justice, however the decisions can only be made about not following the procedure requirements. EK is probably the only EU institution that can give recommendations to the council about the violations of values established in TEU. Europe Comission recommendations can be the base for the application of TEU Article 7, that is why a “tool” has been foreseen to help identify a violation of TEU article 2 inside a member nation.
European commissions new way of protecting the fundamental values established in TEU article 2 - early dialogue with a member nation, that can possibly violate the mentioned values, should be like a preliminary measure to protect the mentioned values, but most of all – the principal ruling of law, and thus all of the EU from potential damage.
Europe Comission communication emphasizes that the rule of law – a constitutional principal, that requires to respect democracy and fundamental rights. It also mentions that abidance of rule of law is inseparable from respect to democracy and the fundamental rights.
In EU history there is no recorded of EU taking any action against any EU nation member, which would have violated any of the values established in TEU article 2.