Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34832
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Maliauskaitė, Eigilė
Title: Ar turto įgyto iki santuokos sudarymo nelaikymas bendrosios jungtinės nuosavybės turtu nepažeidžia sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumo?
Other Title: Whether non-treatment of the property aquired prior to entry to marriage as the property owned under the right of joint ownership does not breach equality of the spouses?
Extent: 33 p.
Date: 2-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumas;Lygybė;Turtas;Režimas;Equality;Principle;Spouses;Equal
Abstract: Lygiateisiškumo principas yra vienas iš svarbiausių ir pagrindinių žmogaus teises užtikrinančių principų. Lygiateisiškumas yra pamatinis konstitucinis princpias, tokiu atveju neaplenkiantis ir sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumo. Sutuoktiniai sudarydami santuoką sukuria šeimą ir bendrą ūkį, ko pasekoje užtikrinti turtines teises ir vertybes bei jų lygiateisiškumą yra labai svarbu. Sukurti lygybę ir užtikrinti lygiateisiškumą, bendrumo principo pagrindas. Tačiau pasaulyje yra žinomos dvi rūšys turto bendrumo nustatytos pagal įstatymą. Tai visiško bendrumo ir dalinio bendrumo principai pagal įstatymą. Pagal visiško bendrumo principą, visas turtas įgytas iki santuokos ir po jos tampa bendrąja jungtine nuosavybe, o pagal dalinio bendrumo principą, dar kitaip vadinamas riboto bendrumo principas, bendrojon jungtinei nuosavybei priskiriamas tik turtas įgytas po santuokos. Pasaulyje labiausiai paplitęs įstatyminis dalinio turto bendrumo principas. Pats bendrumo principas buvo įvestas siekiant užtikrinti ekonomiškai silpnesnės sutuoktinių pusės padėtį, panaikinti nusistovėjusį mąstymą apie vyro ir moters padėtį visuomenėje, sukurti lygybę ir užtikrinti lygiateisiškumą. Tačiau iškyla klausimas ar dalinio bendrumo principas užtikrina sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumą, nes turtas iki santuokos nėra priskiriamas bendrojon jungtinei nuosavybei. Pagal LR Civilinį kodeksą, Lietuvoje egzistuoja dvi sutuoktinių turto rūšys: nustatytas sutartimi ir įstatyminis. Darbo tikslas yra atsakyti į klausimą ar turto įgyto iki santuokos sudarymo nelaikymas bendrosios jungtinės nuosavybės turtu nepažeidžia sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumo? Atsakant į magistro darbe iškeltą klausimą, pimoje dalyje analizuojamas ir atskleidžiamas lygiateisiškumo ir lygybės sampratos skirtumas, sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumo turinys, lygiateisiškumo principas sututoktinių santykių kontekse. Antroje dalyje nagrinėjamas sutuoktinių teisinio turto režimo turinys, samprata, įstatyminio režimo samprata ir rūšys. Alikus šio darbo analizę, naudojant tyrimo metodus nurodytus įvade, leido patvirtinti hipotezę, kad iš dalies yra pažeidžiamas sutuoktinių lygiateisiškumas, kai turtas įgytas iki santuokos nelaikomas bendrąja jungtine nuosavybe, nes teisiniu reguliavimu įtvirtintas tam tikrų sutuoktinių teisių ir pareigų įgyvendinimas gali priklausyti nuo jų skirtingos turtinės „startinės“ pozicijos.
The principle of equal rights is one of the main and basic principles ensuring human rights. The principle of equal rights is the fundamental constitutional principle not even overtaking the equal rights of spouses in this case. Persons who decided to consolidate their relations with the marriage assume both the rights and the liabilities given them. Thus, the marriage is not only the expression of love, this is the set of rights and liabilities granting the equal rights to spouses. The principle is realised during implementation of the principle of equality. Equality is recognised as equal human status, equal treatment of people in society, equal implementation of rights in spite of human features and personality. Natural human equality, cultural, social, economic, labour, legal equality, etc. Equality grants equal rights to all people in spite of their race, sex, religion, etc. For example, giving equal rights to people by them individually and considering their features, people need different tools to achieve the same target. Concluding the marriage, the spouses set up family and common household, thus, it is very significant to ensure property rights and values. The basis of the principle of uniformity is to create equality and to ensure equal rights. But only two types of uniformity of the property determined under law are known all over the world, i.e. the principle of full uniformity and the principle of partial uniformity under law. Pursuant to the principle of full uniformity, any property acquired before and upon the marriage becomes joint ownership, and pursuant to the principle of partial uniformity, the joint ownership constitutes only the property acquired upon the marriage. The statutory principle of partial uniformity of the property is the most common in the world. The principle of uniformity was introduced for the purpose of protection of an economically weaker spouse, annulment of existing thinking on man and woman status in society, establishment of equality and ensuring equal rights. But there arises the question whether the principle of partial uniformity ensures equal rights of spouses because the property is not attributable to the joint ownership and people begin the married life owing different property. The Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania allows two types of property of spouses in Lithuania: defined by agreement and provided in law. When the regime of the common property is statutory, it is suggested that any property acquired upon the marriage is attributable to the joint ownership. In this case, if people sign prenuptial agreement upon entering into marriage, they are applied the contractual regime of the property. By this regime, the spouses provide by themselves the manner for regulation of their property. The spouses who signed prenuptial agreement may choose the contractual type of regime of the property which is the most favourable to them: the property acquired before and upon entering into marriage belongs to each spouse under the right of personal ownership; any property acquired both before conclusion of marriage and living in marriage is the joint ownership of the spouses; the common partial ownership constitutes the property acquired upon entering into marriage. The prenuptial agreement is the guarantee ensuring that the spouses shall adopt division of the property according to their status in the best way they want. Furthermore, the law restricts full freedom while defining terms of the agreement in order to avoid the breach of human moral principles and equal rights. The target of the paper is to answer the question whether the failure to recognise the property acquired upon conclusion of marriage as the joint property does not breach the equal rights of spouses? Answering to the question asked in the master paper, the first section discloses the essence of the principle of equal rights and it’s relation with the principle of equality, analyses the content and the scope of the principle of equal rights in the legal property context of spouses. The second section overviews types of legal property of spouses applied in Lithuania upon analysing scientific sources, presents the principles existing in the statutory regime of spouses, assesses conformity of the principle of partial uniformity with the principle of equal rights. Upon performing analysis of the paper using the analysis of scientific sources, legal acts and court practice, comparative analysis, the hypothesis was confirmed. The failure to recognise the property acquired upon the marriage as the joint property breaches the equal rights of spouses if the property acquired upon the marriage is not recognised as the joint property because the implementation of proper rights and liabilities of the spouses established in legislation may depend on their different property ‘starting’ status.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34832
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34832
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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