Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34821
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Labanauskaitė, Gerda
Title: Ar pagal esamą Lietuvoje teisinį reglamentavimą užtikrinama asmenų, pranešusių apie priešingą teisei elgesį, teisinė apsauga?
Other Title: Does the existing (present) legal regulation of the Republic of Lithuania guarantees legal protection of whistleblowers?
Extent: 55 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Baudžiamasis procesas;Darbo teisė;Informacijos atskleidimas;Korupcija;Pranešėjai;Tinkama teisių apsauga;Whistleblower;Adequate protection of rights;Criminal proceedings regulation;Corruption;Disclosures;Labour law
Abstract: Pranešėjai – tai asmenys, kurie pastebėjo ir pranešė atitinkamoms institucijoms apie galimai padarytus nusižengimus. Jei pranešimas susijęs su darbe daromais pažeidimais, dėl tokios sąžiningos veiklos pranešėjai neretai būna persekiojami savo darbdavių. Šiame magistro baigiamajame darbe tyrimo analizei pasirinktos trys Europos Sąjungos valstybės. Viena iš jų yra Jungtinė Karalystė, turinti plačią reguliavimo sistemą, apimančią tiek privatųjį, tiek viešąjį sektorius. Kita analizuojama valstybė, kurioje galiojantys įstatymai iš dalies reglamentuoja pranešėjų apsaugos mechanizmus ir procedūras viešajame bei privačiame sektoriuose, yra Vokietija. Šalyje pritariama informatorių egzistavimui remiantis bazinėmis nuostatomis. Galiausiai, tyrimui pasirinkta Lietuva, kurioje įstatymų reglamentavimas pranešėjų teisinės apsaugos atžvilgiu yra nepakankamas. Galiojančiuose teisės aktuose galima rasti tik bendras gaires, kurios būtų pritaikomos pranešėjams. Lietuvos Respublikoje nėra priimtas joks konkretus įstatymas, kuris gintų tokius asmenis ir apsaugotų juos nuo galimo persekiojimo, keršto ar šmeižto (nors tai gali sukelti nepatogumų užimant esamas pareigas ar ieškant naujo darbo). Svarbu paminėti, kad 2010 m. rugsėjo 30 d. Seimui buvo pateiktas įstatymo projektas dėl pranešėjų apsaugos, tačiau jis nebuvo priimtas. Vyriausybės nuomone, atskiras įstatymas dėl šio klausimo būtų buvęs perteklinis. 2017 m. vasario 9 d. parlamentinė grupė „Už Lietuvą be korupcijos“ Seime užregistravo „naują“ Pranešėjų apsaugos įstatymo projektą. Projektas buvo atmestas, nes jis „yra iš naujo įregistruotas 2010 m. rugsėjo 30 d. Lietuvos Respublikos pranešėjų apsaugos įstatymo projektas“. Vis dėlto, kai kalbama apie pranešėjams prilyginamus asmenis, tam tikrų išlygų galima rasti Darbo kodekse. Įstatymo straipsniai, kuriuose kalbama apie neteisėtą atleidimą, iš dalies reglamentuoja pranešėjų apsaugą, nors tai nėra konkrečiai apibrėžta. Kita vertus, Darbo kodeksas neapsaugo darbuotojo interesų, nes darbdavys gali bandyti paveikti darbuotoją įvairiais būdais, jog pastarasis ryžtųsi savo noru palikti darbovietę. Šalyje galioja Baudžiamojo proceso kodeksas ir Baudžiamojo proceso bei kriminalinės žvalgybos dalyvių, teisingumo ir teisėsaugos institucijų pareigūnų apsaugos nuo nusikalstamo poveikio įstatyme įtvirtintos nuostatos dėl anonimiškumo taikymo asmenims ar jų šeimos nariams suteikusiems informacijos dėl labai sunkaus, sunkaus ar apysunkio nusikaltimų.
A whistleblower is a person who has noticed and revealed certain information to appropriate institutions about possibly committed offenses. Consequently, whistleblowers are often persecuted by their employers, especially if disclosures they made are related to such offenses as payment of salaries in “envelopes”, illegally gained money, fictitious contracts, work safety violations or discrimination at work. It is common for a whistleblower who has made a disclosure and performed his/her moral duty to face such consequences as demoting, forced truancy, dismissal or even being sued by the employer. Evaluating the situation of the protection of whistleblowers in terms of international law, it is important to emphasise that Lithuania has certain commitments in this sphere regulated by several conventions. It has to be noted that Lithuania is a member of the main international anti-corruption conventions, on the basis of which corruption must be regarded as a criminal action. The role of whistleblowers in EU is very important and is considered to be one of the basic means protecting the financial interests of EU. “EDAPP emphasises the need and necessity to guarantee personal confidentiality of a person who makes a disclosure about actions against the law. WDAPP points out that in many cases the position of whistleblowers is still very complicated”. Transparency International when assessing the effectiveness of the protection of whistleblowers in EU state members has made a list (Appendix NO 1) according to which all EU countries have been divided into certain categories. The presented chart comprises 27 EU countries in accordance to the level of the protection of whistleblowers (advanced, medium and weak or non-existing level of protection). As it can be seen from the presented data only 4 EU countries can be considered to have a well-regulated system of protection of whistleblowers. These countries are Luxembourg, the United Kingdom, Slovenia and Romania. The rest 23 state members, as well as Lithuania, fall into other two categories (medium and weak or non-existing protection of whistleblowers). For the analysis 3 EU countries have been chosen. The UK is a country which has a stable law system for the protection of whistleblowers. The laws in the UK regulate both private and public sectors. Such countries as Ireland, Japan, South Africa have used PIDA (the law of the protection of whistleblowers in the UK) as a model to establish their own regulations and recommendations related to the protection of whistleblowers. Germany is another country which has been chosen for the analysis in the work. It has got procedures and mechanisms that only partially regulate the system of protection of whistleblowers. The third country which shows inadequate consideration towards reglamentation of the protection of whistleblowers is Lithuania. Existing legislative acts have established only general guidelines for the protection of whistleblowers. The problem of the protection of whistleblowers who should be protected after disclosing the information about illegal actions and offenses committed by certain organisations, institutions or government in Lithuania is rather complicated. There is no specific law which could protect whistleblowers from a possible persecution, slander and other negative consequences that could form unfavourable obstacles for such people in their working positions or trying to find a new job. Though Lithuania has some international commitments regarding the protection of whistleblowers in accordance with the United Nation Convention against Corruption and the Civil Law Convention against Corruption, the existing national regulations are not comprehensive. September 30, 2010 Seimas tried to create the law for the protection of whistleblowers. However, it was not confirmed. According to Lithuanian government, a separate law for the protection of whistleblowers would be excessive. February 9, 2017, the Parliamentary group “For Lithuania without Corruption” registered in Seimas a new draft project for the creation of the law of the protection of whistleblowers. However, this draft project has been rejected stating that “it is the same draft project as the one registered in September 30, 2010 regarding the protection of whistleblowers in Lithuania (Reg. No XIP-2459)”. Law Department did not provide any new conclusions regarding this new draft project as both draft projects were considered to be the same. Therefore, the regulations set out in the document signed in October 5, 2010 were left as the main provisions regulating the protection of whistleblowers. On the other hand, it cannot be said that there are no regulatory mechanisms for the protection of whistleblowers in the Labour Code in Lithuania. Certain law articles, especially the ones that regulate illegal dismissal, are established in the Labour Code. However, it does not protect other interests of the employees who, in case of disclosure, can be forced to leave their jobs. Comparing the protection of whistleblowers with other legislative spheres, provisions regarding whistleblowers in criminal proceedings are rather extensive though they are not directly stated. The existing law related to the protection of justice and law enforcement officials against criminal impact has some provisions regulating anonymity of the people and their family members who disclosed information about very serious, serious or less serious crimes.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34821
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34821
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

Files in This Item:
Show full item record

Page view(s)

80
checked on Oct 13, 2019

Download(s)

102
checked on Oct 13, 2019

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.