Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34711
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Kirvelaitis, Eisvinas
Title: Ar nuomininko su nepilnamečiais vaikais iškeldinimas nepažeidžia vaiko teisių?
Other Title: Does the tenant eviction with minors violates the rights of the child?
Extent: 34 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Vaikas;Apsauga;Nuosavybė;Iškeldinimas;Nuomininkas;Child;Protection;Property;Eviction;Tenant
Abstract: Nekvestionuojamas teiginys, jog teisė į gyvenamąjį būstą yra pagrindinė žmogaus teisė, kuri turi ypatingą reikšmę vaikams. Vaikas priklauso pažeidžiamiausių asmenų visuomenėje grupei, todėl turi išskirtines teises. Tarptautinėje teisėje yra numatytos specialiosios apsaugos priemonės skirtos labiausiai pažeidžiamoms visuomenės grupėms, kurios neturi lygių galimybių ginti savo teisių ir pagrindinių laisvių. Kiekvienas vaikas turi teisę į gyvenamąjį būstą. Vaiko teisę į gyvenamąjį nustato, saugo ir gina Lietuvos Respublikos Vaiko teisių apsaugos įstatymas ir kiti įstatymai bei teisės aktai. Šios teisės įgyvendinimo problematika Lietuvos teisinėje sistemoje analizuojama šiame darbe nuomininko su nepilnamečiais vaikais ir nuomotojo santykių kontekste. Kita svarbi teisė užimanti išskirtinę vietą pagrindinių žmogaus teisių sistemoje – nuosavybės teisė. Šiuo metu yra sunku rasti konstituciją, kurioje šalia kitų prigimtinių ir fundamentalių teisių nebūtų deklaruotas reikšmingas ir svarbus nuosavybės neliečiamumo principas, kuris įrašytas ir į Lietuvos Respublikos Konstituciją. Nuosavybės teisės subjektas turi galimybę laisvai įgyvendinti nuosavybės teises, o valstybės pareiga yra užtikrinti nuosavybės teisės įgyvendinimo palankiausias sąlygas ir saugoti bei ginti nuosavybę nuo neteisėto kėsinimosi. Sprendžiant ginčus, dėl nuomininko su nepilnamečiais vaikais iškeldinimo – labai svarbu yra teismo švietimas vaiko teisių apsaugos srityje, nes nėra teisės aktuose numatytos normos, kuri turėtų būti taikoma kiekvienu atveju vienodai. Vienos šalies teisių ir teisėtų interesų suabsoliutinamas kitos šalies atžvilgiu yra negalimas, nes tai prieštarautų pačiai teisei. Tiek vaiko teisė į gyvenamąjį būstą užtikrinimas, tiek nuomotojo teisė laisvai valdyti savo nuosavybę negali būti absoliučios. Teismas turi vadovautis savo diskrecija ir kiekvienu atveju individualiai įvertinti bylos faktines aplinkybes. Teismas yra konstatavęs, jog vaiko teisės į gyvenamąjį būstą užtikrinimas yra viešasis interesas ir turi būti ginamas tiek nacionaliniu, tiek ir tarptautiniu lygiu, pasitelkiant tarptautines ir nacionalines institucijas interesui užtikrinti.
Child protection is one of the major areas of human rights protection. International law provides special protection for the most vulnerable groups in society that do not have equal opportunities to defent their rights and fundamental freedoms. The minors comprise the group of society that are unable to represent fully its rights, to defend them, to appeal upon infringement or disregard, to take political measures to implement its interests. Every child has the right to a home. Child‘s right to home is set, stored and protected by The Ministry of Children‘s Rights Protection Law and other laws and regulations. United Nations (hereinafter - UN) Conference on Human Settlements or HABITAT II confirmed that the right to home is a fundamental human right, which is especially important for children. Children need to be taken care of and they must be protected because of their vulnerability, because without appropriate conditions for the implementation of children, they cannot properly grow and develop the moral and material security environment. Without this right of the child, most other basic human rights such as the right to development, the right to health, the right to privacy and family life, will be in jeopardy. Also one of the most comprehensive international treaties regulating the rights of the child is The Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter – CRC). The right to habitation of the child is established in the Art. 27 of CRC providing that the child has the right to require the parents to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living, support and development. However, a very important principal of ownership right protection is enshrined in the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania that the ownership right may be circumscribed by the will of owner, law and court decision. Unfortunately, the ensuring of these rights rises the sensitive issue on the necessity to establish the balance between the ensurance of rights and interests of children. The statement that the law of property takes an exceptional part in the system of main human rights is unquestioned. It is regulated in a lot of laws and first of all in the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania and in the Civil Code. In order to properly protect this fundamental law, there is a necessity of a suitable understanding of the law or property, revealing and determining its content and restriction of basics. Under the guidance of practice of Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania the above mentioned aspects of law property are being analyzed in this final Master's work. The property right is one of the fundamental human rights. At the moment it is difficult to find a constitution, which among other inherent and fundamental rights are not declared significant and important principle of the inviolability of property, which is stated into the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania. The individuals must be able to fulfill their rights of property, and the state is responsible for ensuring the implementation of property rights and to protect property against unlawful attacks. Complexity is characteristic of legal regulation of property. Constitutional interpretation of the law of property is the broadest. Definition of the content of the law of property formed in the jurisprudence of the Constitutional Court is not thrusted into the “triad” of the traditional rights belonging to the owner. In one of the cases of constitutional justice analyzed this year, the court “freed” the content of property of law from the synthesis of property law into the “triad” of laws, stating that the owner can treat his property as he finds it best, without breaking laws, not restricting other people's rights and freedoms. In this case two fundamental values confront: the inviolability of ownership right and the right to habitation of child under the principal of best interests of child. The powers to establish the balance between these values are assigned to the courts, which, by hearing the cases in order to decide the issues on the rights and obligations of children must apply the appropriate legal norms underlying the defense of the rights and interests of children. Judging cases in which examines the tenant with eviction dispute minor children - it is very important for judges to be well educated in field of children's rights protection, because there is no statutory rule that should be applied in each case the same way. One party’s legitimate rights and interests of the other party made an absolute one is not available, because it is contrary to law itself. The child's right to a home security and the lessor right to freely manage their property cannot be absolute. The Court should follow its own discretion and in every case they must to evaluate the facts of the case.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34711
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34711
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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