Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34690
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Kapočius, Marius
Title: Ar skalūninių dujų gavybos teisinis reglamentavimas Lietuvoje prieštarauja sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principui?
Other Title: Whether legal regulation of shale gas production in Lithuania infringe the principle of clean and healthy environment?
Extent: 37 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principas;Skalūnai;Skalūninių dujų gavybos teisinis reglamentavimas;Principle of clean and healthy environment;Shale gas production legal regulation;Shale
Abstract: JAV intensyviai vysto skalūnų dujų gavybos pramonę ir gerina savo ekonomiką, užsitikrina papildomą energetinį saugumą. Nepaisant to, dujų gavyba susiduria su reglamentavimo iššūkiais. Pagrindinis nerimas yra dėl gamtinės aplinkos apsaugos. Lietuva yra tarp šalių, kurioje manoma, jog yra techniškai išgaunamų skalūninių dujų uolienos dariniai, todėl darbe atliktas tyrimas gali būti aktualus ateityje, norint pradėti tokių dujų gavybą. Taigi, darbe tiriama ar skalūnų dujų gavybos teisinis reglamentavimas Lietuvoje prieštarauja sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principui. Darbe yra analizuojamai tik su vandens apsauga susijusi reglamentavimo problematika. Norint ištirti gavybos reglamentavimo problematiką yra analizuojamas ir skalūnų dujų gavybos procesas, jo grėsmės, grėsmių reglamentavimas. Šios priemonės suteikia galimybę nustatyti ar tai prieštarauja sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principui. Buvo išskirti du pagrindiniai vandens taršos šaltiniai: 1) netinkamas gręžinio įrengimas; 2) hidraulinio ir grįžtamojo skysčio panaudojimas ir laikymas. Sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principas įtvirtina, kad valstybė turi tinkamai reglamentuoti veiksmus, kurie gali sukelti aplinkos taršą, o fiziniai ir juridiniai asmenys turi pareigą nuo tokių veiksmų susilaikyti. Buvo analizuojamas ne tik Lietuvos bet ir JAV teisinis reglamentavimas, kadangi ten skalūnų dujų gavyba yra labiausiai pažengusi. Lietuvos ir JAV reglamentavimas remiasi reikalavimais turėti projektus ir planus, kuriuos tvirtina kompetentingos šalių institucijos, taip vykdydamos kontrolę. Planai ir projektai užtikrina naujausią ir geriausią gavybos praktiką, inžinerinių sprendimų tikslumą pagal gavybos vietovę. Tiriant buvo nustatyta, kad skalūninių dujų gavybos teisinis reglamentavimas Lietuvoje neprieštarauja sveikos ir švarios aplinkos principui.
United States actively develops industry of shale gas production which helps not only to develop economy but provides energy security as well. Shale gas is a cleaner fossil fuel that could benefit in replacing dirty coal and reducing carbon emissions. However, legal regulations of shale gas production face challenges that in major part are related to environmental protection problems. On the one hand, Lithuania is one of the countries where it might be possible technically extract shale oil and gas resources from shale formations. On the other hand, it could be damaging to the environment. Some people are already protesting against hydraulic fracking technology and shale gas production. Thus, conclusions of the analysis whether legal regulation of shale gas production in Lithuania infringe the principle of clean and healthy environment will be relevant in the future analysis if shale gas production may take place in Lithuania. Only the aspects of water contamination will be analyzed in this master thesis. In order to complete the analysis, principle of clean and healthy environment, the process of shale gas production and the perils of water contamination in the United States and Lithuania’s legal regulations were performed. The United States were chosen for its exemplary legal regulation and practice. This framework allows to achieve the aim of the master thesis – to state whether legal regulation of shale gas production in Lithuania infringe the principle of clean and healthy environment. Shale gas wells are very similar to conventional gas wells. The main difference between the aforementioned wells, is that shale gas needs additional technology. In this case, horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing is being used for an economic shale gas production. Without these technologies, economic shale gas production would not be possible, because hydraulic fracturing releases the gas from a shale rock and horizontal drilling is able to reach more horizontally placed shale formation. After the hydraulic fracturing process, the fluid comes to the surface. It is called “flowback” and it is more toxic than hydraulic fluid because of radioactive and other materials that lay down in the rock formations. To avoid water contamination properly built well and safe flowback waste management must be ensured. It is possible to distinguish two main aspects of water contamination of the shale gas production which will be analyzed in the master thesis: 1) excessive pressure/improper or insufficient cement casings of a well; 2) hydraulic fluid and flowback unsafe management problems. The principle of clean and healthy environment is enshrined in the Constitution of Lithuania. Clean environment principle obligates the state to set legal regulations protecting the environment by prohibiting or regulating actions that potentially could cause the contamination. Moreover, people also have their duty to avoid the actions which could contaminate the environment. Healthy environment means that it is not contaminated and does not have adverse effect on people’s health and other living organisms. Principle of healthy and clean environment is infringed if: 1) people do not take actions causing dangerous contamination and/or; 2) the state does not regulate the actions causing the contamination of the environment. Lithuania and United States regulate proper and sufficient cement casing of the well. In both countries, it is required to have a plan approved by the state officials. Thereby, improper or insufficient cement casing of a well is prevented. However, the United states have more imperative regulation than Lithuania. For example, in the United States there is a requirement to send the data to the state officials of the completed well’s pressure before hydraulic fracturing begins. It is very crucial part, because without a proper and/or sufficient cement casings of a well, the water might be heavily contaminated. In both states, there are requirements to have a plan approved by the state officials for toxic waste storage, treatment and disposal. Thus, the contamination of water is prevented. In the plan, both states encourage to recycle and reuse already used hydraulic fluid – it is the best practice of a “flowback” disposal, because only small percent of waste have to be treated. Therefore, both states regulate the main perils of shale gas production. Legal regulation of shale gas production in Lithuania does not infringe the principle of clean and healthy environment because: − The requirement to have a project for a well construction ensures proper and sufficient construction of the well. Project ensures that casing will have the best practice and technology, so there is only a little chance of contamination of ground water. − The requirement to have a plan for waste disposal, treatment and recycling ensures safer water disposal, treatment and recycling as well. Although the plan ensures that waste disposal, treatment and recycling will have the best practice and technology, so there is only a little chance of contamination of surface water.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34690
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34690
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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