International Journal of Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Approach / Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris 2016, [vol.] 19

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  • Publication
    Clinical decision-making of anesthesiology residents in emergency medical care
    [Anesteziologijos-reanimatologijos rezidentų sprendimų priėmimas, teikiant skubią medicinos pagalbą]
    research article
    Macas, Andrius
    ;
    Puidokas, Pranas
    ;
    Maceina, Tomas
    ;
    Šipylaitė, Jūratė
    ;
    Valickas, Gintautas
    ;
    Olševska, Jevgenija
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 9-34
    Background. The purpose of current work is to clarify characteristics of anesthesiologists’ use of heuristics in emergency medical care. Two separate studies were carried out to evaluate the characteristics of anesthesiologists’ use of heuristics: (a) according to gained experience; (b) and under stressful conditions. Methods. First (longitudinal design) study was comprised of two phases 10-11 months apart. In both phases, participants solved three vignettes that required the provision of emergency medical care. In the second study, participants solved three medical vignettes under stressful conditions (i.e. under the influence of the cold pressor test). Physiological data – participants’ heart rate – was registered using finger plethysmograph before and after the cold pressor test. The adequacy of decisions were evaluated independently by two experts in anesthesiology. Results and conclusions. Results of quantitative content analysis of the first longitudinal design study showed a decrease in the use of availability and an increase in anchoring and adjustment of heuristic as anesthesiology residents become more experienced. Results of both studies indicate that 32-38% of all anesthesiology residents’ thoughts are heuristic in nature and 3-11% of all thoughts are cognitive errors.
  • Publication
    Catastrophizing of pain as a predictor of pre- and acute postoperative pain in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome
    [Skausmo katastrofizavimo sąsajos su priešoperacinio ir ūmaus pooperacinio skausmo intensyvumu riešo kanalo sindromu sergančių pacientų imtyje]
    research article
    Budėnas, Antanas
    ;
    Radžiūnas, Andrius
    ;
    Dimšaitė, Justina
    ;
    Pranckevičienė, Aistė
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 35-47
    Background and purpose. Research shows that pain catastrophizing might be an important predictor of pain related outcomes in patients with various health conditions despite of objective severity of the illness. This study aimed to evaluate prognostic value of catastrophizing the pain in predicting pain intensity before and one day after the surgery for median nerve decompression in a sample of patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Methods. 53 patients with electrodiagnostically proven CTS participated in this study. Patients were assessed before and one day after the surgery for median nerve decompression using the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and the Short Form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Intensity of pre- and acute postoperative pain was evaluated using visual analogue scales. Results. Level of reported pain decreased significantly one day after the surgery. No significant correlations were observed between pain catastrophizing and average level of pain during a week before and one day after the surgery. Correlation was observed between highest experienced level of pain after the surgery and preoperative total PCS score. However, pain catastrophizing did not predict neither preoperative nor acute postoperative pain one day after the surgery in multivariate analyses when other study variables were taken into account. Sensory dimension of SF-MPQ was a better predictor of preoperative pain. None of pain and demographic variables predicted acute postoperative pain. Conclusions. Pain catastrophizing was not found to be a significant predictor of pre- or acute postoperative pain in CTS patients.
  • Publication
    Psychological capital, self-compassion, and life satisfaction of unemployed youth
    [Jaunų bedarbių psichologinio kapitalo, atjautos sau ir pasitenkinimo gyvenimu ryšys]
    research article
    Diržytė, Aistė
    ;
    Sabaitytė, Eglė
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 49-69
    Background. Youth unemployment is currently one of the biggest problems in European society. It can reduce the economic prosperity and psychological well-being of unemployed youth. Positive psychological capital (PsyCap) and self-compassion are linked with a number of positive constructs. Those include satisfaction with life, positive affect and personal initiative to make needed changes in one’s life. Thus, PsyCap and self-compassion could be promising resources enhancing the psychological well-being of unemployed youth. The aims of the study are: 1) to reveal relation between PsyCap and self-compassion with life satisfaction of unemployed youth; 2) to investigate the difference between PsyCap and self-compassion for higher and lower levels of life satisfaction among unemployed youth. Methods. The sample consisted of 80 unemployed Lithuanians aged 19-29 (38% male, 62% female). The Psychological capital questionnaire (Luthans et al., 2007), Satisfaction With Life scale (Diener et al., 1985), and Self-Compassion scale (Neff, 2003a) were used in the study. Results. Positive and significant correlations were found between PsyCap and life satisfaction. Moreover, we found positive and significant correlations between PsyCap components and all positive self-compassion components. Although life satisfaction positively correlates with total self-compassion, however, not all positive components of self-compassion correlate with the life satisfaction of unemployed youth. Furthermore, unemployed youth highly satisfied with life had higher levels of PsyCap and self-compassion compared to unemployed youth who were less satisfied with life. Conclusions. Our findings revealed positive correlations between PsyCap and self-compassion with life satisfaction of unemployed youth. Future research is needed in order to explore the causality between variables.
  • Publication
    Relationship with authority in narcissism
    [Santykis su autoritetu ir narcisizmas]
    research article
    Petronytė-Kvedarauskienė, Dovilė
    ;
    Gudaitė, Gražina
    International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach, 2016, [Vol.] 19, p. 71-88
    Background. Relationship with authority is a significant social as well as psychological factor which was destructively influenced by the Soviet authoritarian regime. In Western cultures, authority is often neglected while stressing the importance of an individual, and that leads to narcissistic problems. Though relevance of the issue of relationship with authority is acknowledged in contemporary psychology, it has been scarcely studied so far. Thorough conceptualization of the construct of relationship with authority is necessary for both an adequate assessment of it and applicability of the knowledge about the phenomenon in psychotherapy practice. Finding the narcissistic motives in relation with authority would help to handle with narcissism in research as well as in psychotherapy. The aim of the article is to give a comprehensive conception of relationship with authority with regard to its influence on human psyche development. We seek to distinguish levels and modes of this relationship. The final task is to discern specific motives of relationship with authority which are characteristic of narcissism. Methods. Psychodynamic, mostly Analytical, literature has been reviewed and analysed to explore psychological concept of relationship with authority and its part in inner dynamics of narcissism. Results. Authority can be described as a power, reputation or competence attributed to a person, social group or institution. Three levels of relationship with authority can be discerned: relationship with 1) outer authority figures; 2) inner authority; 3) transpersonal authority. Analysis of literature has led to distinguishing such characteristic motives of narcissistic relationship with authority: aggrandizement or depreciating one’s own authority; fright, anger with re-gard to or fight against authority; abusive authoritative stance or excessive submissiveness; idealization or devaluation of authorities. Conclusions. The importance of the specific modes of relationship with authority in narcissism is inferred with recommendations to include the factor into assessment and psychotherapy of narcissism.
  • Publication
    Personality traits of teachers in Lithuania: do preschool and comprehensive school educators differ?
    [Lietuvos mokytojų asmenybės bruožai: ar ikimokyklinių ir bendrojo lavinimo mokyklų pedagogai skiriasi?]
    research article
    Tarptautinis psichologijos žurnalas: biopsichosocialinis požiūris = International journal of psychology: a biopsychosocial approach. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas, 2016, [Nr.] 19, p. 89-104
    HR professionals are challenged to improve teachers’ performance. Knowledge about personality traits might help in developing recruitment systems as well as training programs for school staff. Educators’ traits are rarely researched in developing countries. Research Questions. What are the differences of Lithuanian teachers’ personality traits according to age and education? Do personality traits differ between preschool and comprehensive school educators? Purpose. The goal of this study was to explore some personality traits (Social Boldness; Tension; Liveliness; Emotional Stability) of Lithuanian teachers working in preschools and comprehensive schools. Materials and Methods. 184 Lithuanian teachers working in preschools and comprehensive schools participated in the cross-sectional survey. The traits of Social Boldness, Tension, Liveliness, and Emotional Stability were assessed with the help of self-report questionnaire based on the Cattell 16PF theory (Cattell & Mead, 2008; Cattell & Schuerger, 2003). Results. Social Boldness was significantly associated with teachers’ educational level – higher scores of Social Boldness were identified in the group that holds a university degree. Younger teachers reported higher levels of Liveliness and Emotional Stability. In addition to this, preschool and comprehensive school teachers differed in Emotional Stability, no other personality differences were found. Conclusions. Teachers’ personality traits can affect teacher’s communication with students, their abilities to consider students’ needs and overcome challenges in the classroom. Gained information could be helpful in human resource management and education: enhance teacher selection processes, teachers’ training and professional development, and improve educational outcomes.