Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/33798
Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Hansson, Joakim
Title: Lost values and unused possibilities in the medieval churches in Gotland
Other Title: Prarastos vertybės, neišnaudotos galimybės Gotlando viduramžių bažnyčiose
Is part of: Meno istorija ir kritika, 2005, nr. 1, p. 60-72
Date: 2005
Keywords: Churches in Gotland;Gotlando vyskupija;Viduramžių bažnyčia
Abstract: There are 92 medieval parish churches and about 15 medieval church ruins on the island of Gotland. The diocese of Gotland has the highest density of well-preserved medieval churches in the region of the Baltic Sea. The churches were mainly built in stages during the 12th, the 13th and the first half of the 14th centuries. Those days, especially during the 12th and 13th centuries, Gotland, as the lock in the middle of the Baltic Sea, was extremely rich. All ships had to pass Gotland and the whole population of Gotland was involved in business all around the sea. The Hanseatic League with modern bigger ships and cogs weakened the unique position of Gotland. In 1361 the Danish king Waldemar Atterdag conquered Gotland. The island became a Danish province in the periphery. Most of the churches are built of limestone, the main stone material in Gotland, but in the south of Gotland there are some churches mainly built of sand stone. In addition to the very specific locally characterized architecture, the Gotlandic churches are famous for their medieval stone portals, medieval art pieces of stone sculptures, medieval art pieces of wooden sculptures, medieval al secco wall paintings and medieval stained-glass windows (about 40 squared meters). Since the Middle Ages the building structure of only two churches (Fårö and Eksta) has been heavily rebuilt. This does not mean that there are no additions in the churches afer the medieval age. The Reformation in the 16th century led to many additions, especially, in the interior, for example, new altarpieces, pulpits and benches. But Gotland was a poor county, a Danish one until 1645 when Sweden got Gotland via the treaty in Brömsebro. The Danish used Gotland only as a military strategic island in the middle of the sea. When Gotland became Swedish, it became part of the super powerful Sweden with provinces all around the Baltic Sea. This meant a new economic boom for Gotland. Merchants moved in, especially, from the war-ravaged Germany. Many interiors of the churches were renewed during the end of the 16th and beginning of the 18th centuries.
Gotlando saloje yra devyniasdešimt dvi viduramžių parapinės bažnyčios ir apie penkiolika bažnyčių griuvėsių. Baltijos jūros regione Gotlando vyskupija pasižymi didžiausiu gerai išlikusių viduramžių bažnyčių tankumu. Šios bažnyčios statytos daugiausia XII–XIII a. tarpsnyje ir XIV a. I pusėje. Tuo metu, ypač XII–XIII a., Gotlandas buvo nepaprastai turtingas Baltijos jūros prekybinis uostas. Dauguma bažnyčių statytos iš kalkakmenio kaip pagrindinės statybos medžiagos, tačiau pietinėje salos dalyje yra keletas smiltainio bažnyčių. Be šiai vietovei būdingos labai specifiškos architektūra, bažnyčios garsios viduramžių akmeniniais portalais ir meno kūriniais: akmens ir medžio skulptūra, al secco sienų tapyba ir vitražais. Nuo viduramžių laikų buvo perstatytos tik dvi bažnyčios. Tai nereiškia, kad per tą laiką bažnyčiose nebūta jokių pokyčių. XVI a. reformacija paskatino daugelio papildymų, ypač interjere (pvz., naujų altorių dalių, sakyklų ir suolų), atsiradimą,. Per pastaruosius dvidešimt metų atlikta atliekama sisteminga ir profesionali Gotlando bažnyčių restauraciją, atskleista ir surinkta daug naujų faktų. Tai įgalina suprasti ir iš naujo atrasti vertybes, laikytas prarastomis. Straipsnyje pateikta keletas pavyzdžių, kaip dingusios vertybės gali virsti naujomis galimybėmis.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/33798
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/33798
Appears in Collections:Meno istorija ir kritika / Art History & Criticism 2005, nr. 1

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