OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos 2011, nr. 2(12)

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  • Publication
    Migracijos tyrimai socialinėse ir ekonominėse migracijos teorijose: analitinės prieigos konstravimas
    [Migration research in social and economic theories of migration: constructing an analytical approach]
    research article
    Žibas, Karolis
    OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos, 2011, nr. 2(12), p. 9-22
    In the course of reviewing social and economic theories of migration, this article constructs an analytical approach that allows a comprehensive look at contemporary processes of migration. It discusses the main theories of migration: the origin of the migration process in the economic theories and the characteristics of migration continuity in the social ones. In analyzing the sociological conception of migration, the main aspects of analyzing processes of integrating the migrants are discussed in the context of the continuity of international migration. The article offers an analytical approach allowing the joining together of distinct factors explaining the origin and continuity of migration: in a synthesis of migration theories the process of migration is treated both as an unavoidable social phenomenon of modern 21st century society and as an economic phenomenon determined by macroeconomic conditions. A description of migration theories helps to reveal peculiarities of the interaction between the concepts of migration and migrants’ integration: the latter is understood as a phenomenon “accompanying” the migration process and connected with macro, mezo, and micro factors influencing it. The article ends by presenting conclusions about the need to analyze migration processes in a comprehensive manner, applying a general schema of factors that explain the origin and continuity of migration, a schema encompassing the principal aspects of migration analysis: its structure, the network and action of migration in their macro, mezo, and microrelationships.
      335  86
  • Publication
    Lietuvių darbo imigracija ir integracija Švedijos darbo rinkoje ir visuomenėje po 2004 metų
    [The integration of Lithuanian labour immigrants in Sweden’s labour market and society after 2004]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2011, nr. 2 (12), p. 23-38
    Not so long ago a one-nation state, Sweden in a very short time turned into a multiethnic and multicultural society. Having become multicultural, Sweden encountered new problems related to the formation of migration policy and the reception and employment of immigrants. In 1997 the Swedish parliament decided on the main directions of integration, emphasizing the formation of migration policy and the preservation of ethnic and cultural diversity in Swedish society. Since its beginnings in 1970 labor migration to Sweden increased notably after 1990 with the demise of the Soviet Union. When in that year the possibility of freely leaving the country became real, the citizens of Baltic and other formerly Soviet countries began emigrating to Sweden. On May 1, 2004 Sweden fully opened its borders to immigrants. This paper presents the results of interviewing eight Lithuanians living in Sweden who presented their opinions regarding the possibility of integration into Swedish society and the preservation of a Lithuanian identity in the emigration.
      171  105
  • Publication
    Šiuolaikinė tarpdalykinė daikto teorija ir jos taikymas analizuojant lietuvių etninę tapatybę literatūriniuose tekstuose
    [Contemporary object theory and its use in the analysis of Lithuanian ethnic identity in literary texts]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2011, nr. 2 (12), p. 39-51
    Object theory, also known as thing theory, appeared in the past three decades through inter-disciplinary conferences and publications and have since attracted the attention of specialists in a wide variety of studies, from art history, filosophy, anthropology, sociology and cultural studies. This article first briefly surveys some major publications and ideas in object theory, providing a cultural analysis of one object’s life history as an example. Its main concern is its application to ethnic identity issues in two novels by second or third-generation Lithuanian North Americans, Jo Dereske and Irene Guilford. The notion that objects are not really passive in their relations with human beings, that they can be called actors in their own right, with their own life histories and their own effects on the people who come in contact with them was discussed from a number of academic points of view in an American conference in the early 1980s which resulted in a major collection of essays The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective (1986). Its introductory essay in particular by Arjun Appadurai aroused widespread interest, leading thirteen years later to a followup conference in Amsterdam and, in 2005, another important collection, Commodification: Things, Agency and Identities (The Social Life of Things Revisted). More recently the collection of articles edited by Fiona Candlin and Raiford Guins, The Object Reader (2009) also stimulates researchers in many disciplines to explore this theory. To illustrate how a real-life object can have a life history and impact on human concepts of identity, the history of small ceramic jug, taken by the mother of the author of this article from Kaunas through war-torn Germany and refugee camps eventually to Canada is analysed. This object became a concrete example of Lithuania for two generations of Lithuanian-Canadians. [...]
      59  102
  • Publication
    Išeiviško gyvenimo patirtys XVIII a. pabaigos – XIX a. Lietuvoje: kitataučių įvaizdis keliautojų po Lietuvą atsiminimuose
    [Emigratory experiences in the end of the 18th and 19th century of Lithuania: the image of immigrants in the travel memoirs]
    research article
    Žąsinaitė-Gedminienė, Jurgita
    OIKOS: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos, 2011, nr. 2(12), p. 52-58
    The article focuses on the travel memoirs of non-Lithuanian authors: Friedrich Schulz, Ludwik Kondratowicz, and Teodor Tripplin, who at the end of the 18th century and in the 19th toured through Lithuania. Close attention is given to their estimation of, and views about, the communities of non-Lithuanian nationalities: Jews, Poles, Slavs, Tartars, Karaites, and Germans. In this research paper, each of these communities is thought of as constituting an ethnic group. In the travel memoirs of these authors, the most widely discussed topic concerns Jews, their life, and their character. In these narratives about Jews, unlike in folklore or in didactic texts, no negative connotation is detected. The travellers judge ethnic groups according to their abilities to preserve ancestral customs and traditions, to cherish morality, and not to assimilate with the natives. The position of Lithuanians in the presence of non-nationals is also indicated: it is often influenced by the Lithuanians’ recognition of themselves as an allegedly superior community.
      69  21
  • Publication
    Vyrų ir moterų patirtys XX amžiaus antrosios pusės išeivijos rašytojų memuaruose
    [Men’s and women’s experiences in the memoirs of diaspora writers in the second half of the twentieth century]
    research article
    Oikos: lietuvių migracijos ir diasporos studijos. Vilnius : Versus Aureus, 2011, nr. 2 (12), p. 59-74
    An analysis of the memoirs written by authors who had emigrated shows a turn toward subjectivity. The politics prevalent in earlier memoirs was replaced, in the period from 1950 to 1965, by reflections on the relationship between people and their times, their history; and by depictions of people in the face of war, of the establishment and loss of independence during the interwar period, and of their experiences in DP camps. In the second half of the 20th century (1965-2000), subjectivity becomes the principal attribute characterizing memoirs, as the latter move ever closer to literature and it often becomes difficult to distinguish them from fiction or autobiography. Many of these memoirs relate one’s own or somebody else’s life history together with the attendant personal experiences and emotions. It is often possible to identify some of these features with differences in the writing style of male and female authors. The purpose of this article is to discuss the memoirs written in the diaspora by Balys Gaidžiūnas, Stasys Yla, Mykolas Vaitkus, and Juozas Švaistras, all men; and Marija Aukš- taitė, Janina Narūnė, Magdalena Mykolaitytė-Slavėnienė, and Eglė Juodvalkė, all women; to bring forth the peculiarities of their texts; and to show how men prefer to reflect on time and people, and women concentrate on reflecting themselves and others. We may conclude that up to 1965 the majority of memoirs were authored by men. Their texts exhibit features of masculine writing: there’s less in the way of analyzing experiences and expressing emotion and more in the way of emphasizing the external world and describing the impact of historical events on human beings. Their purpose is to give witness to important historical processes that affect the Lithuanian nation. From 1965 onwards, however, we observe an increase in the number of texts written by women. We may call this the subjective feminine stage. [...]
      99  105