Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas 2011, nr. 2 (3)

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Leidybą rėmė Lietuvos mokslo taryba / Publication sponsored by Research Council of Lithuania
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  2. Informacija apie Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas 2011, nr. 2(3)

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  • Publication
    Sekuliarizacijos teorija : diskusijos, transformacijos ir atsisveikinimai
    [The secularization theory: discussions, transformations and farewell]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(3), p. 11-24
    In the sociology of religion the concept secularization is understood as multidimensional and multilevel one. However, in Lithuanian non-sociological discourses the term secularization is used only for marking gradual decline of religion. The main aim of the article is to discuss a theoretical background for the further research of religion and religious change in Lithuania. The article summarizes the dominant sociological discourses on secularization, it overviews a variety of research questions related to religious change in the modern world and discusses typologies of secularization concept. The author proposes to group a variety of themes of the secularization debates around two core theoretical problems: a) determinative factors of secularization and b) ways of its manifestation. Summarizing discussions on secularization and following Danièle Hervieu-Leger, Grace Davie, Jose C asanova and other sociologists, the author states that the further research of religion and religiosity in Lithuania should explore different ways of the expression of individual religiosity and spirituality, organizational changes in religion and the socio-cultural context of religious and spiritual processes in the country. The research on religious change should recognize the limitations of secularization theory and the need for a new theory of religion, religious change and spirituality in modern society.
      88  46
  • Publication
    Peterio Bergerio sekuliarizacijos teorijos pokyčiai (1967–2001 m.) ir jų vertinimai šiuolaikinėje religijos sociologijoje
    [Changes within Peter Berger’s secularization theory (1967-2001) and their sssessment in the contemporary sociology of religion]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(3), p. 25-35
    This paper analyzes Peter Berger’s theory of secularization, its main arguments and recent developments in general described as the theory of desecularization. The first part of the text examines Berger’s theory of religion as the sacred canopy and secularization as the process in which religious symbols and institutions loose their dominance in the contemporary society. The second part focuses on the recent developments in Berger’s theory of secularization which is usually described as the theory of desecularization, its main arguments and factors. The third part presents arguments of main critique (Steve Bruce) and supporters (Grace Davie, Danièle Hervieu-Leger) of recent developments within Berger’s theory of secularization. The paper ends with the generalizing insights into Berger’s secularization and desecularization theories and their application for contemporary societies. The author concludes that desecularization theory should be tested within the societies of the new member states of the European Union; she also emphasizes that Berger’s classical distinction between objective and subjective secularization remains useful tool for the analysis of religion in contemporary society.
      37  43
  • Publication
    Preliminary anthropological reflections on secularism and secularity
    [Parengiamieji antropologiniai apmąstymai apie sekuliarumą ir sekuliarybę]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(3), p. 37-47
    Anthropologists have been almost unanimous in rejecting the universalist claims of secularization theory. They have, however, engaged with notions of secularism (a political ideology of church-state separation) and secularity (a culture and habitus of areligiousness). In this article, four such approaches are sketched: Talal Asad’s analysis of the interpenetration of secularism and history throughout Western history, studies of secularism as state ideology in Turkey and elsewhere, studies of secularism as an ideology of social closure against Islam in contemporary Western Europe, and studies of the role of secularity in the formerly socialist countries in the aftermath of an atheist state policy. Conclusions drawn from these approaches may point the way toward a more synchronized anthropological engagement with the secular as both an analytical and a folk concept.
      33  36
  • Publication
    Musulmonų bendruomenių reakcija į sekuliarizacijos procesą Lietuvoje
    [Muslim communities’ response to the secularization process in Lithuania]
    research article
    Norvilaitė, Vaida
    ;
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(3), p. 49-66
    Muslims have been and continue to be an integral part of the Lithuanian society since at least the 15th century. However, the newly independent post-Communist Lithuania has been witnessing (re)appearance of Islam on its soil, where the revived indigenous Tatar Muslim community is gradually being supplemented by immigrant Muslims and even more so by a steadily growing group of Lithuanian converts and their progeny. The Soviet period facilitated rapid secularization among Tatars, majority of whom, even after Lithuania regained its independence and faith communities were once again allowed to freely and publicly practice their religion, remain non-observant if not altogether agnostic. As has become evident from a long-term observation of their communal religious activities and interviews with their communal (both religious and lay) leaders, the absolute majority of the Lithuanian Tatars today see religion of Islam as a mere cultural feature related to their ethnicity. Unlike Tatars, the bulk of Lithuanian converts to Islam, who might tentatively be viewed as a core of the observant part of the Muslim community in Lithuania, as has been revealed in a qualitative research and from their intra-community online communication, are exceptionally religious and observant. Consequently, the two groups construct their view of and relationship with the secularization process in Lithuania in almost diametrically opposite directions – while Tatars seem to be content with it, converts appear eager to stop or even reverse it.
      280  65
  • Publication
    Modernizacija ir religija sovietinėje ir posovietinėje Lietuvoje
    [Modernization and religion in Soviet and Post-Soviet Lithuania]
    research article ;
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2011, nr. 2(3), p. 67-81
    This paper analyzes the influence of modernization process for the individuals’ religion in Soviet and post-Soviet Lithuania. The analysis of the semi-structured interviews with respondents who experienced their religious socialization during pre-Soviet and Soviet period reveals the peculiarities of their religious life. This article consists of several parts. The first part based on the examination of the works on Soviet modernization discusses its differences from the Western modernization. The second part focuses on the analysis of respondents’ narratives; it demonstrates the influence of social control, socialization and differentiation on the individual religious life in Soviet Lithuania and reflects on the religious life in post-Soviet Lithuania. The authors argue that for the analysis of contemporary religious life it is important to examine religious socialization and religious experience influenced by the Soviet modernization. Available data suggest that certain aspects of the Soviet modernization have lasting impact on contemporary individuals’ religiosity and their critical attitude towards the Catholic church and clergy.
      32  45