Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31561
Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Surblys, Alvydas
Title: Martyno Yčo ekonominės veiklos Kaune pėdsakais
Other Title: Economical activities of Martynas Yčas in Kaunas
Is part of: Kauno istorijos metraštis, 2006, nr. 7, p. 111-136
Date: 2006
Keywords: Martynas Yčas;Ekonominė veikla;Biografija;Kaunas;Business affairs;Biography
Abstract: Martynas Yčas (g. 1885 11 13 Šimpeliškių k., Biržų apskr. – m. 1941 04 05 Rio de Žaneire, Brazilijoje) buvo įvairiapusė asmenybė, daugiaplanės veiklos žmogus. Jis – IV Dūmos atstovas nuo Kauno gubernijos, visuomenės veikėjas, diplomatas, finansų ministras, ėjęs ir susisiekimo bei prekybos ir pramonės ministro pareigas, bankininkas, “Lietuvių balso” (leisto 1915 – 1918 m. Petrapilyje ir Voroneže), “Biržų kalendoriaus” redaktorius, leidėjas (jo paties organizuotoje Biržų spaustuvėje), evangelikų “Mūsų žodžio” leidėjas (Biržuose 1922 – 1923 m.), iki gyvenimo galo aktyviai dalyvavęs evangelikų bažnyčios gyvenime, prisidėjęs prie Lietuvos universiteto (vėliau VDU) evangelikų teologijos fakulteto įkūrimo, vertingų atsiminimų (išėjo trys tomai) autorius. Šio darbo tikslas pasekti tik jo ekonominės veiklos Kaune pėdsakais. Būtent ši M.Yčo veiklos sritis tarpukario Lietuvos laikotarpiu, nors ir tyrinėta, tačiau vis dar apgaubta neaiškumų ir paslapties šydu. M.Yčo metamorfozes ekonominiame ir politiniame Lietuvos gyvenime bene geriausiai atspindi jo paties žodžiai, cituoti E.Galvanausko: “Politikas turi būti savarankus. Neturi milijono, nekišk nosies į politiką, neik į valdžią. Kiekviena valdžia, net pati blogiausia, yra iš Dievo. Nauja valdžia visada geresnė už buvusią, o gyvas šuo vertingesnis už pastipusį liūtą.” Kad ir kiek jo priešininkai norėjo matyti jame pastipusį liūtą, M.Yčas išliko gyvybingas ir netapo pasyviu valstybės ūkinio gyvenimo stebėtoju.
In Kaunas, the business affairs of M.Yčas were mostly related to the Trade and Industry Bank, which served the functions of the state bank until the establishment of the Lithuanian Bank. The bank was instituted from the state funds by M.Yčas and his partners. The Trade and Industry Bank was often a major sponsor of the majority of M.Yčas companies, except for the horse-drawn tram business, which was developed on the concessionary grounds. Due to modernization of the city, this business was ceased before the end of concession. The appearance of M.Yčas and his partners company Lietuvos garlaiviai (Lithuanian Steamers), opened a new stage for the Lithuanian sea shipping. Other business projects of M.Yčas were equally ambitious and contributed to the development of the city economy: the Lithuanian market became open to foreign partners and investments. The Trade and Industry Bank was the first to cross the borders of Lithuania. M.Yčas was active in a variety business spheres: banking; bourse organization; production and remake of spirits; production and trade of alcohol; production of beer and oil products; preparation, conversion and trade of wood; production of building material; constructional business; metal conversion; supply of agricultural production; development of pedigree cattle; remake of agricultural production; supply of electricity; development of the city and international transport; trade of coal and colonial goods, etc.; representing and intermediating foreign investors in the Lithuanian market. Trade investments of M.Yčas also varied ranging from fund waste with the Lithuanian branch of French company Alphons Schick to reasonable investments for modernization and organization of new production in oil factory Ringuva. The majority of companies related with M.Yčas were oriented at quick and short-term profit and risky investments. Such companies bankrupted before or together with the bankrupt the Trade and Industry Bank. On the other hand, cases of successful business also occurred: Ringuva strengthened its positions despite the bankrupt of the bank. M.Yčas held the leading positions in the company until 1940. A successful operation of such companies as Lietuvos garlaiviai (Lithuanian Steamers), Lietuvos rajoninës elektros stotys (Lithuanian Regional Electrical Stations), Lietuvos statybos (Lithuanian Constructions) and Dubysa should not be associated with M.Yčas who withdrew from these companies as soon as they strengthened. The establisment of company Butas (Flat) was a venture which did not bring any positive results. The activities of the agricultural companies were best seen in the farm of M.Yčas and his wife in Tirkeliškės. The bankrupt of Trade and Industry Bank was not pre determined or deliberate. For example, other similar institutions were not ruined by co-existing trade potential or inflation. It can be said that the direction of the bank and M.Yčas carried responsibility for the bankrupt of the bank due to their irresponsible actions, negligence and conscious fund wasting and operating for the personal needs. M.Yèas was not sentenced because of the limitation of the case. On the other hand, the prolonged case process interfered with the business affairs of M.Yčas: uncertainty about the future hampered the hold of the trade positions and personal wealth, which was parceled in the course of the long auction.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/31561
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31561
Appears in Collections:Kauno istorijos metraštis 2006, nr. 7

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