Art History & Criticism / Meno istorija ir kritika 2009, nr. 5

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  • Publication
    Šiluvos parapija XVII a
    [Šiluva parish in the 17th century]
    research article
    Meno istorija ir kritika = Art history & criticism. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2009, [T.] 5 : Šiluva Lietuvos kultūroje, p. 9-18
    The Implementation of the Council of Trent programme made parishes of the Lithuanian Catholic Church flourish in the 17th century. The foundation of the Šiluva church previously seized by Calvinists was returned to Catholics in 1622. Through the 17th century, most important traditions of devotion and their ways of expression took shape in Šiluva. The Apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary in 1608 turned the parish into one of the most important religious centers in Lithuania. This article discusses the growth of material facilities of the parish and evolution of devotional practices. The research is based on the visitation of the bishop Kazimieras Pacas in 1677, on the documents from the Šiluva archives and on other sources. The Šiluva parish was one of the richest in Samogitia in the 17th century. Up to 52 families of serfs (in Polish dym) belonged to it. Samogitian bishops had the right of patronage. They always paid special attention to Šiluva. The priests of the Šiluva parish through the 17th century who contributed the most to the florescence of the parish were the canon of Samogitia Jonas Kazakevičius Smolka (till 1646), the procurator of Samogitian capitula Mikalojus Sviechovskis (till 1672) and the canon of Samogitia Joakimas Skirmantas. They always had many collaborators who helped them in material and devotional issues. A new church was built in Šiluva just after the retrieval of the foundation. In 1641, it was replaced by a larger wooden cross-shaped parochial church. The miraculous image The Blessed Virgin Mary with the Child was kept in the High altar. On the sides there were the altars of The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary and The Holy Cross. The latter was founded around 1643 by Gabrielius Klausgaila Skaraitis.[...].
      89  66
  • Publication
    The image "The Blessed Virgin Mary with the Child" of the Šiluva Basilica: the problems of the origin, iconographic context and dating
    [Šiluvos bazilikos paveikslas „Švč. Mergelė Marija su vaikeliu“: kilmės, ikonografinio konteksto ir datavimo problematika]
    research article
    Stankevičienė, Regimanta
    Meno istorija ir kritika, 2009, nr. 5, p. 19-37
    Šiluvos Švč. Mergelės Marijos Gimimo bažnyčios, dabar bazilikos, istorija yra susijusi ne tik su ryškiau nei kitur pasireiškusiomis tarpkonfesinėmis XVI–XVII a. kovomis, Marijos apsireiškimo Šiluvoje garsu, bet ir ypatingu Švč. Mergelės pagerbimu Šiluvos paveiksle. Sovietmečiu nesėkmingai siekta sumenkinti Šiluvos, kaip vieno iš svarbiausių Lietuvos katalikų sanktuariumų su stebuklingu Dievo Motinos atvaizdu, svarbą. Garsiausias bazilikos paveikslas – „Švč. Mergelė Marija su Vaikeliu“, dar vadinamas „Šiluvos Švč. Mergele Marija“, „Šiluvos Dievo Motina“, „Šiluvos Madona“. [...]
      207  27
  • Publication
    The Basilica of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Šiluva : the iconology of art
    [Šiluvos Švč. Mergelės Marijos Gimimo bazilika: dailės ikonologija]
    research article
    Meno istorija ir kritika = Art history & criticism. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2009, [T.] 5 : Šiluva Lietuvos kultūroje, p. 38-65
    Šiluvos Švč. Mergelės Marijos Gimimo bazilika – vienintelė Lietuvoje šventovė, kurios puošyboje taip įvairiapusiškai plėtojama Jėzaus Kristaus įsteigtos Bažnyčios tema, kadangi čia ši tema siejama su Švč. Mergelės Marijos apsireiškimu Šiluvoje 1608 metais. Švč. Mergelės Marijos Gimimo bazilika – tai įvairiais aspektais labai vertingas XVIII a. antrosios pusės vėlyvojo baroko meno kūrinys. Šios bazilikos interjero (skulptūrinio dekoro, tapybos ir įrenginių) visuma sukurta kaip potridentinės Triumfuojančiosios Bažnyčios esmių esmė, savotiška kvintesencija. Bazilikos ikonografinėje programoje plėtojamos trys pagrindinės, tarpusavyje persipinančios, temos: Dievo Motinos, pagimdžiusios pasauliui žadėtąjį Išganytoją, Jėzaus Kristaus, įsteigusio Bažnyčią, ir Bažnyčios. Šias temas papildo šalutinės potemės, pasakojančios apie svarbius šiai programai Senojo ir Naujojo Testamento įvykius, Bažnyčios įkūrėjus – apaštalus, prie Bažnyčios augimo ženkliai prisidėjusius šventuosius. Bažnyčios vidaus puošybos esmę sudaro trijų altorių ansamblis, apimantis presbiterijos ir šoninių navų erdves, keturi altoriai prie piliorių, sakykla ir krikštykla bei vargonų choro tribūna ir jų prospektas vidurinės navos erdvėje. Apie Šiluvos parapiją ir jos bažnyčias rašyta įvairiausiais aspektais, pvz., gilintasi į Marijos apsireiškimo aplinkybes, painias istorijos peripetijas, Šiluvos Dievo Motinos su Kūdikiu paveikslo problematiką, tyrinėtos pamaldumo apraiškos. Tačiau šios šventovės daile, ypač jos turiniais ir prasmėmis, – nei giliau domėtasi, nei ji išsamiau tyrinėta. Taigi tyrimo objektas – 1786 metais sukurto interjero įvairiarūšiai dailės kūriniai ir įrenginiai.[...].
      57  48
  • Publication
    Šiluvos bazilikos Šventosios Šeimos paveikslas
    [The altar-piece of the Holy Family in the Basilica of Šiluva]
    research article
    Meno istorija ir kritika = Art history & criticism. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2009, [T.] 5 : Šiluva Lietuvos kultūroje, p. 66-77
    The picture of The Holy Family which was created in the second half of the 18th century and located on the terminal side altar of the left nave in the Basilica of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Šiluva was chosen as the object of this article. This particular altar-piece was not dissertated till nowadays, but it distinguishes several interesting aspects of iconography which ask for an explicit research. So, the analysis of this image in iconographical-iconological aspects became the main purpose of this article. The altar of The Holy Family in the Basilica of Šiluva had the title of St. Joseph till the 20th century and was related with the cult of this saint. From the second half of the 17th century or the beginning of 18th century the Confraternity of St. Joseph operated in this church and the altar mentioned above belonged to it. The devotional tradition of St. Joseph was preserved and carried on in the second half of 18th century when in Šiluva the new brick– built church was erected. The image of The Holy Family was placed in St. Joseph altar in the end of 18th century and it is attributed to the iconographical type of Terrestrial Trinity. In the art context of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania the originality of Šiluva altar-piece is based on the complementary subject of Jesus among the Doctors. The theological essence of The Holy Family altar-piece of Šiluva is both the emphasis on the mystery of One God in Three Persons and its connection with world and the new Church. And the family which consists of three essential parts is a constituent of this new Church. The first manifestation of Jesus’ independent activity in this case marks the end creating the new model of Terrestrial family. This model is set on its connection with the God in Three Divine Persons. The Holy Family image and altar make the harmonious part of the whole iconographical programme in the Basilica of Šiluva. [...].
      37  43
  • Publication
    Šiluvos ir Seinų bazilikų vargonai: tiesos ir istorinių sąsajų paieškos
    [The organs of the Šiluva and Sejny basilicas: the search for truth and historical links]
    research article
    Povilionis, Girėnas
    Meno istorija ir kritika, 2009, nr. 5, p. 78-84
    The history of the organ of the Šiluva Basilica of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary is rather complicated. Neither the exact date of the creation nor masters of the organ have been precisely specified. Archival sources talk about it especially modestly and the composition of the present instrument does not in the least reflect the look of an initial creation. Researching the history of Lithuanian Baroque organ-building art, it was noticed that the facade of the Šiluva organ has no analogues in Lithuania. Its architectural design greatly differs from facades of the Vilnius late Baroque organ-building school most widespread in Lithuania. It is not known precisely where from this organ facade was moved to the Šiluva church around 1895. Several similar organ facades have survived in Latvia: Holy Trinity Church in Liepaja and St. Jacob Church in Riga; today the resemblance is also borne by the organ of the Basilica of Sejny. One of the most nearly situated analogues of the Šiluva organ is the facade of the organ of the Sejny Basilica. Both facades are unified by the lying behind them Romantic instruments of the work of the Kaunas master Jonas Garalevičius. However, having researched more thoroughly, the question arises whether the facade of the Sejny Basilica organ is a contemporaneous and authentic Baroque creation or an excellently produced and hidden neobaroque imitation. In the second half of the 19th – the beginning of the 20th centuries, organs were quite frequently replaced with new ones, leaving only an old and ornate facade and mounting a completely new instrument in the inside. The article thoroughly explores the question whether the facade of the organ of the Sejny Basilica is truly a repetition, what its prototype is and whether its author could be the master Jonas Garalevičius. The hypotheses about an initial appearance of the facade of the organ have been raised and related views of earlier published researchers have been analyzed.
      47  21