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Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Čeputytė, Simona
Title: Ar Lisabonos sutartis suteikė Europos Sąjungai kompetenciją veikti išorės energetikos srityje?
Other Title: Whether the Lisbon Treaty Confer the European Union Competence in External Energy Policy?
Extent: 33 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2014
Keywords: Europos Sąjunga;Lisabonos sutartis;kompetencija;energetika;European Union;Lisbon Treaty;competence;energy policy
Abstract: Darbo kontekste nagrinėjama Lisabonos sutartimi įtvirtintos teisinės nuostatos susijusios su energetikos sektoriaus reguliavimu, bei šių nuostatų atžvilgiu suteikta kompetencija valstybėms narėms ir Europos sąjungai veikti išorės energetikos srityje. Tokiu būdu siekta atsakyti į klausimą: ar Lisabonos sutartis suteikė Europos Sąjungai kompetenciją veikti išorės energetikos srityje? Tyrimas buvo atliktas nagrinėjant ES pirminius ir antrinius teisės aktus, TT jurisprudenciją, mokslinius darbus, taip pat naudojant lyginamąjį, istorinį, aprašomąjį bei apibendrinamąjį metodus. Įgyvendinant darbo tikslus, įvardintieji metodai buvo derinami tarpusavyje. Pirmoje darbo dalyje buvo analizuojamos bendros energetikos politikos ištakos. Siekiant atskleisti energetikos sektoriaus politinės reikšmės pokyčius skirtingu laikotarpiu , bei pabrėžti Lisabonos sutartimi įtvirtintas energetikos sektoriaus naujoves ir tikslus, buvo atlikta Romos, Mastrichto bei Lisabonos sutarčių analizė energetikos politikos aspektu. Taip pat atlikus mokslinių darbų analizę, nustatytos pagrindinės priežastys, paskatinusios stiprinti energetikos sektorių, bei ES išorės energetikos kompetenciją, bei šią politikos sritį įtvirtinti pirminiame teisės akte. Antroje dalyje analizuojama Lisabonos sutarties 194 straipsnis „Energetika“. Atliekama Europos Sąjungos, bei valstybių narių kompetencijos analizė veikti šio straipsnio atžvilgiu. Siekiant tikslingai atsakyti į klausimą pasitelkta solidarumo ir subsidiarumo principų teisinės galios analizė. Trečioje Darbo dalyje nagrinėjama bendra prekybos politika, jos pokyčiai įtvirtinus Lisabonos sutartį bei įtaka kuriant konkurencingą energetikos rinką. Atlikus Lisabonos sutarties, Teisingumo Teismo jurisprudencijos, bei mokslinių darbų analizę, nustatyta aiški ES kompetencija, sudarant susitarimus su trečiosiomis šalimis, bei ES vaidmuo tarptautinėje arenoje. Atlikus tyrimą paaiškėjo, kad Lisabonos sutartis suteikė Europos Sąjungai kompetenciją veikti išorės energetikos srityje, nors sutarties atžvilgiu ši kompetencija ne visais atvejais aiškiai apibrėžta. Lisabonos sutartyje 194 straipsnyje „Energetika“, nėra įtvirtinta konkreti Europos Sąjungos kompetencija išorės energetikos srityje, tačiau dėl funkcinės ir reguliacinės energetikos politikos susipynimo įvairiais lygiais ir įvairiose srityse, Europos Sąjungos įsikišimas visada gali būti pateisintas susiejant energetikos sritį su vieningos rinkos kūrimu, įtvirtintais solidarumo bei subsidiarumo principais ar pasinaudojant implied power doctrine. Aiški Europos Sąjungos kompetencija veikti išorės energetikos srityje atskleidžiama įtvirtinta išimtine kompetencija bei suteiktais įgaliojimais bendradarbiauti bei sudaryti susitarimus su trečiosiomis šalimis tiekėjomis.
The legal provisions set by the Lisbon Treaty related to the regulation of the energy sector, as well as the member states and the European Union’s competence to act in external energy sector are analysed in the context of the thesis. Not only the Lisbon Treaty, but the case law and analysis of scientific articles were used for the research. In such a way it was tried to answer the question whether the Lisbon Treaty conferred the European Union competence to act externally the energy policy? In the thesis having analysed some primary legislation, i.e. the treaties of Rome and Maastricht, and having compared with the Lisbon Treaty it was found that the energy policy had been developed since the establishment of EEC, but this area was not paid a particular attention, as well as the energy was not provided as part of the policies set in the original act, and competence was concentrated in dependency of the sovereign powers of the member states. However, the Lisbon Treaty entered into force, otherwise called the Treaty on the Functioning European Union (TFEU), made fundamental changes: Energy policy was highlighted as an individual area established in Article 194, a shared competence between the member states and the EU energy policy sector was provided. An external energy policy is formed: common market, improvement of infrastructure, a stable supply, use of renewable sources. Also after the analysis of scientific articles it is worth noting that the EU needs to contribute to the external energy policy making and strengthen the energy sector as a separate policy area has become increasingly evident during Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis. Also after energetically weak member states having entered the EU as well as during the evolution of other EU politicians when energy policy could no longer be a part of these policies. Therefore, it is obvious that the states became unable to fight emerging issues alone, and the results can be achieved only when “speaking with a one voice“. Having analysed the provisions of a common commercial policy established in the Lisbon Treaty it was found that in this area of policy the EU is granted an exclusive competence. Through the exclusive competence only the Union may adopt legally binding acts, and the member states can do that only being obliged by the Union, or if it is necessary for the implementation of Union acts. The essence of the exclusive competence is that the EU through its exceptional powers to implement its jurisdiction at most and that means that the legislation adopted by the EU institutions completely and fully regulate energy policy while there is no room left for national legislation. Furthermore, the common commercial policy according to the Lisbon Treaty has expanded to Foreign direct investment (FDI), therefore, the European Union has become a major actor carrying out the external policy on the international level, entering into international agreements with third parties and legally binding regulations. Also having examined International law jurisprudence, it was found that a large significance when strengthening the EU’s competence to act in external energy sector has implied power doctrine which gives the EU the right to adopt any legislation that reasonably required for the implementation of intended purpose. In the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union the doctrine is reflected in Article 3(1) which provides the exclusive competence of the EU, and Article 216(1) through which the EU have the right to enter into international agreements. Furthermore, having consolidated the EU’s right to act in direct foreign investments, it has become apparent that all matters that fall within the WTO now falls under the exclusive competence of the EU. The new comprehensive European investment policy enables the EU to utilize its leverage to negotiate favourable terms with non-Member States and consistency in protection standards worldwide. However, there are still uncertain future and EU competence of existing investment treaties signed by Member States before the Lisbon treaty entered into force. The analysis of the Lisbon Treaty showed that through the shared competences the EU is provided with the right to operate in the areas of the energy, trans-European networks and the environment. In the shared competence the member states shall exercise their competence to the extent that the Union has not exercised it, so that the Union’s competence is a priority. The EU is also provided with the competence to adopt measures significantly affecting the member states, when they are choosing different energy sources and their overall energy supply structure. However, the member states keep the right to define terms of use of its energy resources, to choose between different energy sources and to establish the general structure of the energy supply. In addition, the principle of subsidiarity and solidarity established in the treaty leaves a lot of uncertainty, but also allows the EU to strengthen its competence as well. After the analysis of the thesis it was found that the Lisbon Treaty provided the EU's with competence to act in external energy sector, although, regarding the treaty this competence is not always clearly defined. Although, a particular EU competence is not established in Article 194 of the Lisbon Treaty “Energy” but due to the functional and regulatory energy policy overlapping at various levels and in various areas, the EU intervention can always be justified in linking the energy sector with the development of the common market, established by the principles of subsidiarity and solidarity, or taking advantage of implied power doctrine. This is justified, even in cases where this area shows obviously the member states' prerogatives. However, the analysis clearly confirmed not only an exclusive competence of the EU, but also a major power to act in direct foreign investments, as well as through supply agreements with third parties in cooperation with the WTO. Treaty of Lisbon brought an extension and clarification of EU competence, a greater role for the European Parliament (EP) and the inclusion of external trade and investment policy, along with foreign and security, environment and development policies in the now unified European External Action. The research analysis revealed that the hypothesis is confirmed.
Affiliation(s): Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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