Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/120858
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Abramavičius, Karolis
Title: Ar yra užtikrinamas tvarus aplinkosaugos problemų sprendimų užtikrinimas tarptautiniu mastu?
Other Title: Is a sustainable resolution of environmental problems ensured internationally?
Extent: 49 p.
Date: 3-Jun-2016
Keywords: Darnus vystymasis;tarptautinis tvarus aplinkosaugos režimas;tarptautiniai aplinkosaugos teisės instumentai;žmogaus teisės.;Sustainable development;intenational sustainable environmental regime;international environmental law instruments;human rights.
Abstract: Nuo 1992 metų Rio de Žaneire vykusios pasaulinės Jungtinių Tautų Aplinkos ir plėtros konferencijos, joje dalyvavusios valstybės susitarė puoselėti darnaus vystimosi koncepciją, kuri palaipsniui tapo šiandien egzistuojančio tarptautinio aplinkosaugos režimo pagrindu ir tuo pačiu siekiamybe, šią koncepciją siekiant įgyvendinti iki idėjinio lygmens. Šia valstybių sulygta idėja siekiama trilypio skirtingų sferų – ekonomikos, socialinės srities bei aplinkosaugos balanso, šitaip šias sferas vienodai sureikšminant, nelaikant vienos vertingesne už kitą. Darnaus vystimosi koncepcija yra vienas iš pagrindinių svertų, siekiant sukurti tvarų tarptautinį aplinkosaugos režimą ir jį puoselėti, turint omenyje, kad šiandien žmonija kiekvieną dieną susiduria su vis opėjančiomis aplinkosaugos problemomis, jų plintančiais padariniais, kurie yra glaudžiai susiję su visuotinai pripažintomis žmogaus teisėmis bei kėsinasi į šių teisių išvesdinamus visuotinai pripažintus kiekvieno asmens gerovės principus – tokius kaip teisė į švarią aplinką, pastogę, maistą, vandenį ir, žinoma, sveikatą ir gyvybę. Šio magistrinio darbo tikslas – apibrėžti šiandien aktualių globalių aplinkosaugos problemų specifiką, jų sprendimui taikomus tarptautinius teisinius instrumentus ir apžvelgiant šių instrumentų formuojamų režimų efektyvumą išsiaiškinti ar yra užtikrinamas tvarus aplinkosaugos problemų sprendimas tarptautiniu mastu – ar yra formuojama darnaus vystimosi koncepcijos principais paremta tvari tarptautinė aplinkosaugos sistema. Siekiant išsiaiškinti kaip veikia tarptautiniai teisės instrumentai ir iš jų kildinami režimai, šiame mokslo darbe yra apžvelgiama: 1) šiandieninė ekologinė situacija pasaulyje ir jos sąsaja su iš visuotinėmis žmogaus teisėmis, jų apsauga; 2) teorinis tvarumo principo modelis ir Europos Sąjungos, kaip vieno sąmoningiausių dalyvių ekologinio integralumo atžvilgiu vaidmuo tarptautinėje arenoje ir kartu šio principo įgyvendinimo kontekste; 3) kovos su klimato kaita teisinių instrumentų, Jungtinių Tautų Bendrosios klimato kaitos konvencijos ir Kioto protokolo, reguliavimo specifika, jų veiksmingumas ir kylančios įgyvendintinų tikslų problemos; 4) atliekų reguliacinių režimų veiksmingumas globaliu mastu (tiek sausumoje, tiek vandenyje) ir egzistuojantys taršos atliekomis prevencijos modeliai; 5) specifinė pabėgėlių statusą turinčių žmonių – ekologinių pabėgėlių traktavimo problematika. Magistriniame darbe keliama hipotezė – Tarptautinis aplinkosaugos problemų sprendimas gali būti užtikrinamas įgyvendinant esamus tarptautinės teisės instrumentus, jais užtikrinant tvarios tarptautinės aplinkosaugos sistemos sukūrimą – nepasitvirtina.
Ever since 1992 UN global conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro the countries that took part in this global event agreed upon the development of the concept of sustainable development. This latter concept has become the basis and as well the main objective of the international environmental regime, trying to fulfill it to its highest theoretical level. The concept of sustainable development is pointed at the balance of three different spheres: economical, social and environmental, at the same time not prioritizing any of them, thus making sure none of them is superior to others. Considering the main idea of the latter concept it is seen why it has become so important in the years from the day it was presented – today the humanity has to deal with constantly developing environmental problems and their caused aftermaths which have a close link with the globally acknowledged human rights. Such aftermaths infringe the human rights as well as the principles of the common welfare deriving from them, like the right to clean environment, to shelter, to food, to water and, of course, the most fundamental rights of all – the right to health and the right to life. It is important to mention that a number of people that pattern of life is being affected by the actual global environmental problems (such as climate change, water, ground and air pollution, ineffective waste management or naturally or human-caused environmental degradation) is constantly growing and has an increasing tendency to grow unless these problems are effectively addressed internationally. The main objective of this master’s work is to determine the specifics of the actual global environmental problems, what international legal instruments cover them, to determine the effectiveness of their regimes and what value they provide towards the creation of the global environmental system that would ensure sustainability in reaching international environmental law solutions. Trying to make sure how the international environmental law instruments and their regimes work the following aspects are reviewed: 1) today’s ecological situation in the world, today’s ecological problems and what relation they have with the fundamental welfare principles derived from the human rights; 2) theoretical model of sustainable development and the role of the European Union as one of the most ecologically aware actors in the international arena; 3) specifics, efficiency and implementation problems of the international environmental instruments which regulation is addressed to climate change such as United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and Kyoto Protocol; 4) regimes of the international waste management (including dry land as well as water, seas and ocean areas), their efficiency, implementation problems and methods addressed to waste prevention; 5) status of ecological refugees – how they are treated and what dangers as well as legal problems they are facing. The hypothesis of this mater’s work is as follows: The international solution of the global environmental problems can be ensured implementing today’s international environmental legal instruments and together with them ensuring creation of the international sustainable environmental system. Considering the analyzed data and the legal scholars’ opinions considered in this work it is seen that the latter hypothesis is not proved out. It is seen that both, implementing international environmental legal instruments and creation of the international sustainable environmental system with the regimes deriving from such instruments, depend on several factors that are primarily related to separate states and their sovereign power. Moreover, while many states (especially the states referred as the third world countries) are not financially strong to consider the possibility to invest a lump sum of money in order to fight environmental problems, there are concerning cases when a bunch of economically strong states is not even considering such behavior – they are simply not willing to lose their economic competitive ability abiding the rules of international environmental legal instruments addressed to prevent certain factors that have a significant footprint in a progress of the environmental problems that are being faced, for example, the case with the climate change and following obligations to reduce emissions. We can see that there is a specific legal vacuum when the states that have previously ratified specific international legal instruments, for example Kyoto Protocol, can even avoid common obligations that other states obligate themselves to follow (for example the case with Russia, Japan and Canada when these countries simply opted out from the second commitment period (2013 to 2020) of the Kyoto Protocol due to strict emission obligations) – such imperative-free option is one of the main reasons why the idea of international sustainable environmental legal system is in a stage of stagnation. Therefore, now we can see that implementation of sustainable development principle is only possible in state and regional level (as common states’ initiative, for example, the case of the European Union and its member states). Meanwhile, the global level is considered to be a future objective, a pursuable model of environmental international cooperation which at the given moment is only possible on a theoretical plane.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/120858
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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