Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/108488
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Ostrovskytė, Solveiga
Supervisor: Palionienė, Neringa
Title: Baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neapykantos nusikaltimus taikymo problematika Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo kontekste
Other Title: The issues of applying criminal justice for hate crimes within the context of Europian Court Of Human Rights
Extent: 42 p.
Date: 18-Jun-2020
Keywords: Neapykantos nusikaltimas;Hate crime;Neapykantos ir smurto kurstymas;Incitement to hatred and violence, denial;Tarptautiniai nusikaltimai;Transnational crime
Abstract: Neapykantos nusikaltimai (angl. hate crime) – tai visos neapykanta, šališkumu ir/ar išankstiniu nusistatymu motyvuotos veikos, nukreiptos prieš asmenį ar asmenų grupę, išskiriamą pagal lyties, amžiaus, neįgalumo, rasės, seksualinės orientacijos, tikėjimo, ,kalbos, tautybės, socialinės padėties, kilmės, įsitikinimų ar pažiūrų požymius, už kurias tarptautinėje ir/ar nacionalinėje teisėje numatyta baudžiamoji atsakomybė. Istoriniai įvykiai, kurių metu neapykanta prieš asmenų grupę, išskiriamą, pagal lyties, amžiaus, neįgalumo, rasės, seksualinės orientacijos, kalbos, tautybės, kilmės, socialinės padėties, tikėjimo, įsitikinimų ar pažiūrų motyvuoti veiksmai nusinešė milijonus žmonių gyvybių. Todėl jų suvokimas, nustatymas ir prevencija yra laikomi vieni iš svarbiausių prioritetų Lietuvos valstybei ir visuomenei, žmogaus teisių srityje veikiančioms institucijoms. Europos Žmogaus teisių ir pagrindinių laisvių apsaugos konvencijoje įtvirtintos žmogaus teisės ir pagrindinės laisvės. Joje numatyta, kad jokia šios Konvencijos nuostata negali būti aiškinama kaip suteikianti kuriai nors valstybei, grupei ar asmeniui teisę vykdyti kokią nors veiklą ar atlikti kokį nors veiksmą, kuriais siekiama panaikinti kokias nors šioje Konvencijoje numatytas teises ir laisves ar jas apriboti daugiau nei numatyta šioje Konvencijoje. Konvencijoje įtvirtintų teisių ir laisvių pažeidimai motyvuoti neapykanta, šališkumu ir (ar) išankstiniu nusistatymu prieš asmenų grupę, išskiriamą pagal lyties, amžiaus, neįgalumo, rasės, seksualinės orientacijos, kalbos, tautybės, kilmės, socialinės padėties, tikėjimo, įsitikinimų ar pažiūrų požymius gali būti pagrindas taikyti griežčiausią teisinės atsakomybės rūšį – baudžiamąją atsakomybę. Tyrimo objektas : baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neapykantos nusikaltimus taikymas Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo praktikos kontekste. Tyrimo tikslas : sistemiškai išanalizuoti neapykantos nusikaltimų sampratą, neapykantos nusikaltimų reglamentavimą Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje, baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neapykantos nusikaltimus taikymo prielaidas ir pagrindus nustatytus tarptautiniuose teisės aktuose, tame tarpe Europos Žmogaus teisių ir pagrindinių laisvių konvencijoje ir Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo praktikoje. Šiuo tikslu tyrime pateikiamos neapykantos nusikaltimų teisinio reguliavimo atsiradimo prielaidos, išanalizuoti neapykantos nusikaltimų sampratos teoriniai aspektai, baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neapykantos nusikaltimus taikymo prielaidos tarptautinės teisės aktuose, baudžiamosios atsakomybės už neapykantos nusikaltimus taikymo prielaidos Europos Žmogaus pagrindinių teisių ir laisvių konvencijoje, neapykantos nusikaltimų reglamentavimas Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje Europos Žmogaus Teisių Teismo praktikos kontekste Atliekant tyrimą panaudoti lingvistinis teisės aiškinimo, istorinis lyginamasis lyginamosios analizės metodai. Reikšminiai žodžiai: neapykantos nusikaltimas, menkinimas, neigimas, neapykantos ir smurto kurstymas, pritarimas, tarptautiniai nusikaltimai.
Hate crime is any act based on hatred, bias and / or prejudice against a group of persons, distinguished by age, sex, sexual orientation, disability, race, nationality, language, origin, social status, signs of belief, conviction or opinion for which criminal liability is provided for under international and / or national law. Historical events in which hatred against a group of people distinguished by gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, race, nationality, language, origin, social status, faith and motivated actions have claimed millions of lives. Therefore, their perception, detection and prevention are considered to be one of the most important priorities for the Lithuanian state, society and every institution operating in the field of human rights. Hate crimes encroach on fundamental values - equality. The principle of equality in a democratic state is considered a constitutional value enshrined in the basic legal acts. In the case of criminal offenses motivated by hatred and / or prior bias, the object of the attack is a person or a group of persons with certain features that make up his / her identity and are often irreplaceable. In this way, hate crimes and / or criminal acts motivated by prior bias deny the dignity of a person, individuality and the principle of equality of all persons. Thus, the proper identification and investigation of criminal acts motivated by hatred and / or prior bias help to protect fundamental democratic values. The European Convention on Human rights (ECHR) (Formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) embedded human rights and fundamental freedoms. It provided that no provision of this Convention shall be construed as conferring on any State, group or person the right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the abolition or restriction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth in this Convention. Violations of the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Convention which are motivated by hatred, bias and / or prejudice against a group of persons based on gender, sexual orientation, age, disability, race, nationality, language, origin, social status, religion, belief or opinion, may be the basis for the application of the strictest type of legal liability - criminal liability. The European Court of Human Rights was established by the 1950 Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms; since 1998 it has become a permanent international judicial body dealing with complaints from individuals, groups of individuals and non-governmental organizations alleging violations of their rights or freedoms as enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights and its Additional Protocols. The European Court of Human Rights applies the provisions of the European Convention on Human Rights. Its task is to ensure that states respect the rights and guarantees enshrined in the Convention. This is done by dealing with complaints (also called 'petitions') from individuals or states. If it is established that the state has violated one or more rights or guarantees, the Court makes a decision. Decisions are binding: the respondent States undertook to comply with them. The European Court of Human Rights has repeatedly emphasized in its case law that it is not its task to decide on the composition of the crime of incitement to hatred, violence and discrimination. In addition, national authorities, in particular courts, should interpret and apply national law. The role of the court is to determine whether the consequences of such an interpretation and application are compatible with the Convention. In doing so, the court must ensure that the national authorities base their decisions on an acceptable assessment of the relevant facts. In this way, the European Court of Human Rights does not examine or determine the regulation of liability for hate crimes, the composition of hate crimes in national law, its task is to assess whether the application and interpretation of criminal liability for hate crimes by national authorities, especially courts enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights. It is this specificity of the functions performed by the European Court of Human Rights that causes problems for national courts to properly interpret and apply the established case law of the European Court of Human Rights when applying criminal liability for hate crimes. The lack of a precise concept of hate crimes, clear lack of systematic criteria for the proper identification and classification of acts as hate crimes, creates obstacles to the effective and lawful application of criminal liability for hate crimes by national courts. The European Convention of Human Rights has stated that Lithuanian courts do not always recognize hate crimes and do not provide effective protection of rights in Lithuanian courts, the quantitative criterion of language of hate established in the practice of Lithuanian courts is questionable. The topic of the research presupposes that its boundaries are to define the concept of hate crime, to assess the preconditions for criminal liability for hate speech enshrined in international law, to assess court convictions for criminal liability for hate crimes in the context of European Convention of Human Rights case law. The regulation of liability for hate crimes analysed in this study is relevant only to the extent that the application of criminal liability, in accordance with the established regulation, is justified in the context of the European Convention of Human Rights. Thus, it is necessary to properly identify which criminal offenses are to be considered hate crimes and to assess the criteria applied by Lithuanian courts when applying criminal liability for hate crimes, in comparison with the criteria established in European Convention of Human Rights case law to apply criminal liability for such offenses. The practice of Lithuanian courts in cases of hate crimes is still being formed. It should be noted that criteria such as context, reality of incitement and expert judgment are given different weight in different cases. There are cases where the courts do not evaluate them at all, or evaluate them contrary to the previously developed practice. The object of the research: application of criminal liability for hate crimes in the context of the case law of the European Court of Human Rights. The aim of the research: To systematically analyse the concept of hate crimes, regulation of hate crimes in Lithuanian criminal law, preconditions and bases of criminal liability for hate crimes established in international legal acts, including the European Convention on Human Rights and European Court of Human Rights in the context of case law. In the light of this research, the study presents the preconditions for the emergence of legal regulation of hate crimes. It analyses the theoretical aspects of the concept of hate crimes, preconditions for criminal liability for hate crimes in international law and preconditions for criminal liability for hate crimes in Lithuania. As well as European Court of Human Rights in the context of case law. Linguistic interpretation of law and historical comparative methods of comparative analysis were used in the research. Keywords: hate crime, incitement to hatred and violence, denial, acceptance, denigration, transnational crime.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/108488
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

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