Journal of Water Security 2017, vol. 3

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  • research article
    Ketilsson, Jónas
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    Óskarsdóttir, Sigríður Magnea
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    Claesson, Andrea
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    Collet, Nathalie Jonasson
    Journal of water security, 2017, vol. 3, p. 1-11
    This research looks at water protection of Lækjarbotnar and Kerauga springs in South Iceland. Discharge measurements show that Minnivalla- and Tjarnalækur streams lose 350 and 1350 l/s respectively into the ground. The equivalent amount springs to surface along the edge of the Þjórsá Lava and Búði Glacial Moraine in a few springs. Tracer tests indicate that lost surface water of Minnivallalækur transits partly along a fracture to Kerauga in 65 days and to Lækjarbotnar in 125 days through the Þjórsá Lava over a similar distance of about 5 km. Hence the lost surface water of Tjarnalækur in the east is unlikely to travel past this drainage divide west of the fracture to Lækjarbotnar but more likely to drain into Ytri-Rangá. Thus a proposed poultry farm in that area proposes minimum direct risk to water safety of Lækjarbotnar. As a result of this connection Kerauga is not a safe source of drinking water. The aquifer is considered unconfined, heterogeneous and anisotropic. It is recommended to define inner and outer protection zones for Lækjarbotnar further north and to springs of Minnivallalækur respectively. It is hypothesized that Kerauga cave is manmade.
      15  35
  • research article
    Mongirdas, Viktoras
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    Journal of water security / Aleksandras Stulginskis university, Riga Technical University. , 2017, vol. 3, article number: jws2017002, p. 1-8
    Just like every economic activity, aquaculture has a particular effect on environment, which manifests itself due to waste through declining quality of subterranean water and eutrophication of surrounding surface water. Less than half of the feed in aquaculture is digested and assimilated, the rest ending up as waste either solid or dissolved and the nutrients phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) that are derived from fish excretion, faeces, and uneaten feed. The advantage of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) is that their wastewater discharges are 10–100 times lower and pollutant concen-tration respectively 10–100 times higher and can reach the level of pollution of household waste. This makes the pollution much easier to control. Additionally, striving to ensure and improve the stability and longevity of RAS, additional technological solutions, warranting the reduction of the amount of used water, waste concentration increase and their sec-ondary utilization as bio stock are added. This article presents the research information from the engineering perspective, summarizing RAS design sensitive data concerning aquacultural waste components excreted in RAS.
      167  246
  • research article
    Saad El-Din, Marwa Ibrahim
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    Gad El-HaK, Heba Nageh
    Journal of water security, 2017, vol. 3, p. 1-6
    Lake Timsah, Egypt receives several kinds of pollutants coming from domestic sewage of unconnected areas adjoining the shore and possibly marine pollution. During the last decades heavy metals have become common contaminants of aquatic and wetland environments throughout the world because of human activity and technological development. Increasing attention has been given during the last decade to the protection of marine and freshwater aquatic environment against pollution, both nationally and internationally. Macro-benthoses are the most commonly organisms used as bio-indicators water quality assessment. All of the aquatic macro-invertebrates that were collected from El-Taween station, Lake Timsah, Egypt fell into three major groups that were fairly easy to identify. They were annelids (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta), molluscs (Bivalvia and Gastropoda) and arthropods (Crustacea). The small sized crustacean Sphaeroma. serratum are considered suitable species for aquatic bio-monitoring because they hold an important position in the aquatic food chain responds to many pollutants, easy to culture and has short life cycles. Iron was most important determinant; it appears in high concentrations in both water sample and the tissue of crustacean sample (S. serratum).
      12  46
  • research article
    Ikonen, Jenni Meirami
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    Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria
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    Heikkinena, Jatta
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    Pitkänen, Tarja
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    Ciszek, Robert
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    Kolehmainen, Mikko
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    Pursiainen, Anna
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    Kauppinen, Ari
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    Kusnetsov, Jaana
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    Torvinen, Eila
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    Miettinen, Ilkka T.
    Journal of water security, 2017, vol. 3, p. 1-10
    Physico-chemical and microbiological water quality in the drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) of five waterworks in Finland with different raw water sources and treatment processes was explored. Water quality was monitored during four seasons with on-line equipment and bulk water samples were analysed in laboratory. Seasonal changes in the water quality were more evident in DWDSs of surface waterworks compared to the ground waterworks and artificially recharging ground waterworks (AGR). Between seasons, temperature changed significantly in every system but pH and EC changed only in one AGR system. Seasonal change was seen also in the absorbance values of all systems. The concentration of microbially available phosphorus (MAP, μg PO₄-P/l) was the highest in drinking water originating from the waterworks supplying groundwater. Total assimilable organic carbon (AOC, μg AOC-C/l) concentrations were significantly different between the DWDSs other than between the two AGR systems. This study reports differences in the water quality between surface and ground waterworks using a wide set of parameters commonly used for monitoring. The results confirm that every distribution system is unique, and the water quality is affected by environmental factors, raw water source, treatment methods and disinfection.
      25  131
  • research article
    Li, Jing
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    Parkefelt, Linda
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    Persson, Kenneth M
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    Pekar, Heidi
    Journal of water security, 2017, vol. 3, p. 1-8
    Cyanobacteria in fresh water can cause serious threats to drinking water supplies. Managing cyanobacterial blooms particularly at small drinking water treatment plants is challenging. Because large amount of cyanobacteria may cause clogging in the treatment process and various cyanotoxins are hard to remove, while they may cause severe health problems. There is lack of instructions of what cyanobacteria/toxin amount should trigger what kind of actions for drinking water management except for Microcystins. This demands a Cyanobacteria Management Tool (CMT) to help regulators/operators to improve cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin monitoring in surface waters for drinking water supply. This project proposes a CMT tool, including selecting proper indicators for quick cyanobacteria monitoring and verifying quick analysis methods for cyanobacteria and cyanotoxin. This tool is suggested for raw water management regarding cyanobacteria monitoring in lakes, especially in boreal forest climate. In addition, it applies to regions that apply international WHO standards for water management. In Swedish context, drinking water producers which use raw water from lakes that experience cyanobacterial blooms, need to create a monitoring routine for cyanobacteria/cyanotoxin and to monitor beyond such as Anatoxins, Cylindrospermopsins and Saxitoxins. Using the proposed CMT tool will increase water safety at surface water treatment plants substantially by introducing three alerting points for actions. CMT design for each local condition should integrate adaptive monitoring program.
      13  60