Istorija 1996, t. 34

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  • Publication
    Istorijos mokslo labui
    [Dedication to the science of history]
    research article
    Dundulis, Bronius
    Istorija, 1996, t. 34, p. 3-55
    In his memoirs the author, a scientist and historian, dwells upon the most memorable and peculiar experiencies of his, upon his native village, college, upon his studies in Kaunas and Paris universities, upon his work in the University of Vilnius, a hard period which lasted for half a century (1941—1992). Chapters: Homeland. At a college and at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas (1920—1933); — Going into the heart of history. Extending the knowledge of history at the Sorbone University in Paris, where he got a doctor degree (1934—1940); — Return to Lithuania. The first Soviet enslavement and German occupation. The starting work at Vil¬nius University (1941—1944); — Postwar Soviet period at the University of Vilnius (1944—1990). The teaching staff and the work of a lecturer. Public activities. Scientific work; — After restoration of Lithuania’s Independence (1990—1994).
      76  9
  • Publication
    1764 metų Vilniaus generalinė konfederacija
    [Vilnius General Confederation of 1764]
    research article
    Karvelis, Deimantas
    Istorija, 1996, t. 34, p. 57-75
    This article investigates the atmosphere of the last Polish-Lithuanian State interregnum and the work of the Lithuanian General Confederation in it. The Polish Noble Confederation of XVI—XVIII centuries has been well enough discussed in the Polish historiography. This can not be said, however, about the history of confederations of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The confederation under discussion operated in Vilnius from 1764 till 1766. At that time there were a lot of intrigues for the election of a new king, and there was a fight between two dignitary groups: the so-called „republicans“ and Czartoryscy in the Polish-Lithuanian State. On April 16, 1764, Vilnius General Confederation started as non constitutional means to solve the collision between the two contradictory noble groups. It ended as a constitutional means of the Convocation Seym. The Confederation was organized by Czartoryscy who was supported by Russia, and it was against the „republican“ party, especially its leader Radziwill. This Seym made quite a lot of reforms concerning the ruling of the State. It worked in the limits of the Lithuanian General Confederation and it was confederate. The analysis of the content of the accepted confederate acts shows that this confederation, as well as the other forms of parliament, was a partial state representation of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This confederation was a more effective institution than the Seym, because they solved the questions by a majority of votes, but not by using the liberum veto principle. The confederation of the Grand Duchy was solving ail affairs independently from Poland, until they united in September 1764. A common confederation of the two nations when the king Poniatowski was elected, continued its work until the Seym of 1766. The Confederations of XVI—XVIII centuries of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania are white spots in the Lithuanian historiography. The research of the noble confederation, to be investigated as a legislative institution and not as a military' organization, can be taken into account as one of the possible variants of the analysis.
      48  26
  • Publication
    Iš lietuviškosios Viliaus Gaigalaičio veiklos Mažojoje Lietuvoje
    [On Vilius Gaigalaitis' Lithuanian activities in Lithuania Minor]
    research article
    Strakauskaitė, Nijolė
    Istorija, 1996, t. 34, p. 76-85
    According to the local historical tradition, the majority of the population of Lithuania Minor were farmers, and the intellectual class was very' small. Thanks to the efforts of the latter, however, the struggle for Lithuanian national interests spread in the region. One member of this small group was Vilius Gaigalaitis (1870—1845), famous for his work in the social. cultural and ecclesiastical spheres of the region’s life. Gaigalaitis was born into a Lithuanian-speaking farming family in Naujiena, a village of the Ragnit District. At that time Lithuano-German relations were still good, but at the end of the nineteenth century, the Kaiser’s Germanization policy became stronger in East Prussia, as it did elsewhere in the German Empire, and hence the Lithuanian culture, like that of other minority groups came under threat. Gaigalaitis’ pro-Lithuanian stance strengthened teaching in the grammar schools of Memel and Tilsit, where Lithuanian was taught quite well. At that time Tilsit was the centre of the Lithuanian national movement in East Prussia. Many activists from Lithuania Minor worked in this town which was home to several Lithuanian cultural and educational associations. Gaigalaitis took part in these activities. Between 1892 and 1896 Gaigalaitis studied divinity in the universities of Konigsberg and Berlin. His choice of study was probably influenced by the fact that he grew up in a very' religious family — a common phenomenon in tins region’s farming community. Gaigalaitis was interested in the ancient Lithuanian literature, and in 1900 he defended his dissertation in Kdnigsberg University on the topic .Die Wolfenbutteler litausiche Postilien-hanhandschrift a. d. Jahre 1573“. That same year he began to serve as a pastor in the Šilutė District and soon became involved in political activities. From 1903 he was elected three times to the Prussian Landtag. In his speeches to the Landtag, he strove to draw the attention of the Prussian authorities to discrimination against the Lithuanian language in schools and churches. At that time, and still today, Gaigalaitis’ political activities have been assessed in different ways. Many of his contemporaries in the Lithuanian movement regarded him too concessive, while the German politicians were disquieted by his continual reference to the problems of the Lithuanian minority fights. On the other hand, Gaigalaitis always paid attention to the region’s historical connections with Germany and so during the First World War he encouraged Lithuania Minor’s alliance with Germany rather than with Lithuania. Following the Lithuanian annexation of the Klaipeda region in 1923 Gaigalaitis withdrew noticeably from the political activity and concentrated his efforts on cultural and social affairs. Most of all he took points to establish Lithuanian private schools in the region. He was head of the Klaipėda Region Schools’ Association which coordinated such programmes. Thus he founded over sixty Lithuanian primary schools in a period of fifteen years to balance the impact of German schools in the region, and thereby local inhabitants gained the right to choose where their children should be educated. This and other aspects of Gaigalaitis’ work allow us to conclude that he achieved much in his defence of the Lithuanian language in schools and in the church, and preserved the long-established Lithuanian cultural tradition in Lithuania Minor.
      12  19
  • Publication
    Lietuvių švietimo draugijų padėtis panaikinus spaudos draudimą
    [Situation of the Lithuanian educational societies after the cancellation of the ban on press]
    research article
    Pukienė, Vida
    Istorija, 1996, t. 34, p. 86-97
    After cancelling a ban on the Lithuanian press, when the „Temporary Rules Concerning Societies and Unions“ had been declared, the Lithuanian education societies were founded, which strove for the turning of the cultural life of the Lithuanian nation away from the lagging behind, which was determined by the Czar’s despotic policy. The first Lithuanian educational societies „Saulė“ and „Žiburys“ were established by priesthood. The „Šviesa“ and the „Vilniaus Aušra“ under the guidance of secular intelligentsia were founded too, but the societies existed only one year. At the height of the revolutionary events, the societies partly easily succeeded in receiving the permissions for libraries, evening courses and schools foundations. The society „Saulė“ had established a little more schools, because in these schools the main subjects were taught in Russian. The pedagogical courses which used to qualify the Lithuanian teachers were especially important. The Lithuanian language dominated in the schools of the society „Žiburys“, the Lithuanian language used for teaching was the main reason why the Girl’s pro-gymnasium of Marijampolė. could not develop into Gymnasium. In the beginning of the 20th century, the contradictions which arose among various political trends, were noticeable in the activity of the societies, too. The most vivid contradictions were between the „Šviesa“, the secular society which had functioned in the Suvalkai Province, and the Catholic „Žiburys“. But the idea of the national revival and the striving for dessemination of the native language had united all the societies. Therefore, in the activity of cultural organizations representatives of various Lithuanian political parties collaborated. Declared rules and laws concerning activities in field of culture and education had been couched in such a way that the Czar’s government had a possibility to administer and persecute the Lithuanian cultural and educational institutions. Representatives of Czar’s Administrations used to consider the Lithuanian educational societies a stimulator of the national movement, therefore, in various ways, they tried to interfere with the work of the societies. On certain pretexts, in September 1908, the Lithuanian secular educational societies „Šviesa“ and „Viniaus Aušra“ were closed down. The Catholic societies, however managed to obtain an assistance of some officers of local authority and to found a way out of these difficult situations. The societies were supplied with the assistance of the leaders of the Church hierarchy.
      18  10
  • Publication
    Lietuvos ir JAV santykiai Paryžiaus taikos konferencijoje 1919 metais
    [Lithuania’s and the USA relations in Paris Peace Conference in 1919]
    research article
    Skirius, Juozas
    Istorija, 1996, t. 34, p. 98-113
    The regular request of the Lithuanian representatives to acknowledge the Lithuanian independence came into collision with the US government’s principle of „Indivisible Russia“. Having accepted the government of Kolchak in May 26, 1919, Washington’s administration kept their intercourse also with Lithuania as Russia’s autonomy. Besides, with the international situation in mind, the US government spoke in support of the possible Polish and Lithuanian federation. It was not only for the political purposes, but also based on the trade perspective and the investment of the US capital into Poland. As it appeared impossible to achieve these two goals, the intention to recognize the Lithuanian temporary independence was emerging in the ruling spheres of the USA. The hopes of the Lithuanian delegation to seek for recognition of the independence of Lithuania from the USA in the Paris conference were decreasing. The support from the US government in 1919 that came in food, medicine and accouterments, strengthened the position of the Lithuanian government in the country. The American Relief Administration and the USA Liquidation Commission fully realized the necessity of their material support and also managed to gain some profit. Though the Lithuanian government became indebted, the Lithuanian diplomats saw the political significance of their contacts with the above mentioned organizations. It was anticipated that through these contacts, a contract with the US government would be established. The US government, however, did not supply strategic materials or credit because of political and military motives.
      9  16