Istorija 1998, t. 38

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  • Publication
    Ornamentuotieji siauraašmeniai pentiniai kirviai Lietuvoje
    [Ornamentierte Schmaläxte mit Nacken in Litauen]
    research article
    Malonaitis, Arvydas
    Istorija, 1998, t. 38, p. 3-11
    In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden zum ersten Mal ornamentierte Schmaläxte mit Nacken untersucht. Es werden die Dynamik ihrer Aufbewahrung in den litauischen Museen, ihre Zahl, der gegenwärtige Stand und die Verbreitung besprochen. Es wurde versucht zu überblicken, wie diese Äxte im allgemeinen Klasifikatiosfeld der Schmaläxte mit Nacken aussehen. Nach diesem Überblick wurde festgestellt, daß man fünf Formen der ornamentierten Schmaläxte mit Nacken unterscheiden kann. Typisch für sie sind ein schmaler Keil und ein ovales Schaftloch. Es wurden die Höhe, das Gewicht, die Schneidefläche, der Axtstiel analysiert. Diese Analyse hat ermöglicht, drei unterschiedliche Gruppen festzustellen. Bei der Klassifikation des Ornaments wu'de bemerkt, daß es zur Zeit zwei Ornamentselemente der vorhandenen Äxte gibt. Das sind der Punkt und die Linie. Es sind sieben Ornamentmotive entdeckt, die aus einer Linie bestehen, und ein Motiv besteht aus Punkten. Bei der Untersuchung der zu ornamentierenden Flächen wurde Schlußfolgerung gezogen, daß das Blat, der Nacken, der Keil und der Rand der Schneide zwischen dem Blatt und dem Keil ornamentiert werden. Am häufigsten wird das Blatt ornamentiert, seltener die Nacken und die Keile. Nur zweimal kam die Ornamentierung des Schneiderandes zwischen dem Blatt und dem Keil vor. Was die Verbindung der zu ornamentierenten Flächen anbelangt, so unterscheiden sich die Äxte der siebenten Form durch die größte Mannigfaltigkeit. Ihr Ornament ist am ordentlichsten und am vollendesten. Wenn man das Ornament der Äxte bestimmen will, so nimmt man an, daß der Ornament die Rolle eines gewissen Symboles spielt und die Ausschließlichkeit der Person ausdrückt.
      20  12
  • Publication
    Kiškų giminės konfesinės nuostatos (XV a. pab. – XVII a. pr.)
    [Confession regulations of the Kiška family (end of the 15th c. – 17th c.)]
    research article
    Asadauskienė, Nelė
    Istorija, 1998, t. 38, p. 12-25
    The confession issue in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania cannot complain about the lack of attention of the historians; however, one issue dealing with the professing the faith of the family which belonged to the oligarchy of the separate state, and its change from generation to generation has not been thoroughly analysed. This article provides the confession regulations analysis of the six generations of the Kiška family (famous in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the end of the 15th C. to the 17th C.) based on the epistolary communication of the family, testaments, church archives, mentions of the researchers of confession issues, and by indicating the belonging to confession of more than twenty family members (the total number of the family members starting with Stanislovas (?-1514), and ending with Jonušas (1589-1654), is 29) and dwelling more thoroughly on the influence of the family of Stanislovas (?-1554), the Governor of Vitebsk, to the development of the reformation process, and the influence of his grandson Stanislovas (1584-1626) to the development of the contra-reformation process in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
      67  7
  • Publication
    Vilniaus miesto problemos Vilniaus seimelyje XVIII a.
    [Vilnius town problems at Vilnius local Diet in the 18th century]
    research article
    Jurgaitis, Robertas
    Istorija, 1998, t. 38, p. 26-33
    Vilnius local Diet was one of most important in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL). It was predetermined by several factors. Vilnius was not only the capital of GDL but also the important centre of parliamentarism. There meetings of Convocations, Confederations, local Diet of Vilnius and in 1667-1778 also the ones of Smolensk and Starodub took place. Meetings of Vlnius local Diet in the 18th century most frequently took place at Vilnius Lower Castle. The first senators and stewards of the GDL took place at it. In addition to other problems, at Vilnius Diet matters of Vilnius town were discussed because senators and other noblemen of the GDL had real estate in Vilnius and representatives of Vilnius town observed the course of works not only of Seyms of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth but also of Vilnius Diet. Although habitants of Vilnius had no right of voting, they were entitled to submit a protest or their wishes in hope that their requests will be heard and included into instructions of Diet. At Diet matters of Vilnius of various kinds were discussed, such as personal applications of noblemen, problems of Catholic church and other religious communities, problems of protection and safety of the town, taxes and accommodation of delegates of the tribunal, social guardianship, activities of Vilnius magistrate and so on. On analysis of clauses of Vilnius 18th century PreSeym Diet Instructions we obtained that from 1 to 9 clauses of it were related to Vilnius town matters (from 4,76 % to 16,66 %), or at the average 8, 97 % of the problems discussed at the Pre-Seym Diet.
      18  11
  • Publication
    Vasario 16-oji – objektyvus dėsningumas ar atsitiktinumas
    [February 16 - chance or regularity]
    research article
    Gaigalaitė, Aldona
    Istorija, 1998, t. 38, p. 34-38
    The article is of historiographic nature. The Lithuanian historiography is classified into two parts. The first part deals with the authors who affirm, that the declaration of Lithuanian independence Act is a coincidence, which depends on the will and wishes of the German occupants at the end of the World War I. The second group includes those authors, who noticed the Lithuanian people's aspiration to restore their independence and independent republic long since the end of the nineteenth century. They tried, taking advantage of historical circumstances, to throw off the Russian and German oppression and develop an independent, democratic republic. The Act of February 16 exactly expressed the political aims of the group of Lithuanian intelligentsia and was a guiding star throughout 1918, until the Lithuanian government was formed. The aims of this day became a vital question for the whole nation, which managed to protect its independence in the wars with neighbours in 1919-1920.
      12  17
  • Publication
    Priešlėktuvinės apsaugos organizacijų kūrimas Lietuvoje
    [Creating of air defence organizations in Lithuania]
    research article
    Lapėnaitė, Jovita
    Istorija, 1998, t. 38, p. 39-45
    In 1927 was founded the first Lithuanian organization of civil aviation - the Lithuanian Aero Club. It took over the organization of civic air defence. In 1934, because of some disciplinary problems, a number of aviation officers were removed from the military and had joined the Aero Club. Their contribution in the field of air defence consisted in preparation of various manuals and press articles. Lithuanian National Guard (Lietuvos Šaulių Sąjunga) in 1930 set up a commission whose task was to organize in various localities training courses on chemical warfare. Training manuals were published. In 1935 Lithuanian Aero Club with the Lithuanian National Guard prepared the regulations of the Air-defence union and organized the exhibition of the air-defence and anti-gas protection. It was shown in seventeen cities in Lithuania and was visited by 120 thousand persons. Active combat against enemy aircraft was the responsibility of Anti Aircraft Grouo established in 10 of July 1935. It consisted of three batteries of 75 mm Vickers- Armstrong antiaircraft guns, each battery equipped with a predictor, power generator, Electroakustik sound detector, AEG searchlights. For action against low flying aircraft they had 20 mm automatic Oerlikon cannon and for ground protection heavy machine guns. A munitions plant in Linkaičiai was producing 20 mm and machine gun ammunition and gas masks. Passive defence covered air observation, warning service and damage control after air raid. In 1936 Defence Minister approved and published rules of passive air defence. Entire territory of Lithuania was divided into smaller sectors. City mayors, district chairmen, police and local functionaries were responsible for implementation of these rules. Within the passive defence company there was training of non-commisioned officers and privates for degassing activities. Such was air defence system in Lithuania in 1940, on a level equal with systems in other European States.
      11  10