Istorija 1999, t. 40

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  • Publication
    Tautos budimas ir blaivybės sąjūdis
    [National revival and the temperance movement]
    research article
    Šenavičienė, Ieva
    Istorija, 1999, t. 40, p. 3-11
    Based on historical facts, the article gives a new interpretation of the Lithuanian temperance movement in the second half of the nineteenth century and it refutes till now commonly accepted version that this popular movement was religious in its character. Following the principle that nationalism appears when different cultures struggling for an independent existence collide, the author assumes that in the years of the temperance movement - under the conditions of the approaching uprising and land reform - the collision between Polish, Russian and Lithuanian rudiments was particularly distinct. The assertion is substantiated that most members of temperance fraternities were Samogitian peasants, i. e. the most enlightened, homogeneous, and not denationalized part of Lithuanian peasantry. Beginning in 1845, their national feelings were strongly affected by a pro-Lithuanian activity of the Catholic Church. These historical circumstances and some evident peculiarities of the movement itself - its spontaneous and impulsive character, absence of religious motives and anti-imperial antagonism - make it possible to assume that the above-mentioned years brought a turning point into the self-consciousness of Samogitian peasants. For the first time there occurred certain dynamic changes revealing the consolidation process of national identity. Hopes for a better life linked with the emancipation process naturally had to provoke a romantic and, at the same time, human desire to express people's existence in the most accessible and safe way - spiritual and physical rehabilitation. The voluntary and unbelievably massive enrolment into fraternities in reality was the expression of the Lithuanian Ego - a spontaneous demonstration of national community occurred under the banner of sobriety. On the ground of national interpretation of the temperance movement the so far obscure historical facts are explained: initiation of the movement, spontaneous and mass character, behavior of Russian power, gentry and nobility, financial strata of Jews and Jews of Telšiai (Samogitian) diocese, as well as the role of the Catholic Church and Samogitian bishop Motiejus Valančius in the movement.
      39  20
  • Publication
    Kas skyrė ir kas jungė lietuvius bei lenkus XIX a. viduryje
    [What separated and united Lithuanians and Poles in mid 19th century]
    research article
    Medišauskienė, Zita
    Istorija, 1999, t. 40, p. 12-18
    For several centuries Lithuania and Poland have been forming one common state. After the partitions of the state at the end of the 18th century, this tradition was broken. Lithuania and a large part of Poland, both as separate units, became integral parts of the Russian Empire. The article describes the attitudes of Lithuanian society towards the relationship between those two members of the former state - two "brother nations", i. e. Lithuanians and Poles. It also throws some light upon the issues that were uniting and, at the same time, separating these two nations. The feeling of Lithuania-Poland unity was supported by the gentry and the tradition of common state, and common history, which the gentry cherished. This unity was strengthened by the culture, created mainly by the gentry in the Polish language the significance and impact of which on the society was continuously growing. Lithuania's individuality was also supported by the historic tradition, i. e. the tradition prevalent before the union with Poland, as well as by certain differences in customs, lifestyle, emotional attraction to native land, ethnic origin, and ethnic difference of the territory related to the peasants. All these factors influenced the future formation of the modern nations and the determination of the Lithuanian gentry on the issue of nations.
      28  19
  • Publication
    Lietuviškų vadovėlių rengimas ir leidyba 1905–1918 metais
    [Writing and publication of Lithuanian textbooks in 1905-1918]
    research article
    Pukienė, Vida
    Istorija, 1999, t. 40, p. 19-22
    After the Lithuanian press ban had been lifted and the Lithuanian language became the language of instruction in schools, it became very important to publish new textbooks that conformed with national interests and the latest achievements in sciences and pedagogy. Textbooks published at the end of the 19,h century and the beginning of the 20’h century have been used in Lithuanian schools since 1905: "Naujas elementorius" by A. Krikščiūnas, "Elementorius" by P. Vileišis, "Žiupsnelis" by L. Ladislavas (V. Laumianskis), "Vaikų skaitymėliai" by J. Juškytė, "Aritmetikos uždavinių ir pavyzdžių rinkinys" by P. Bendoriusand P. Daugirdas. Until 1915 the publication of textbooks was limited because there was no money and little demand. Lithuanian as the language of instruction was used only in primary schools. However, the situation changed when Germany occupied Lithuania in the summer of 1915. Lithuanian gymnasiums were founded in Vilnius, Kaunas, Panevėžys, and they needed new textbooks. Lithuanian Society of Sciences contributed much to the writing and publication of these textbooks. About 56 textbooks were prepared for publication in 1915- 1918. This work was, in the first place, financed by a publications fund, established in 1908. Some money was borrowed from the National Housing Fund and from the society to aid war victims. Teachers and specialists from different fields of sciences participated in this activity: A. Smetona, P. Klimas, J. Šaulys, M. Biržiška, A. Janulaitis and others. As a result, almost all primary and secondary schools were provided with printed textbooks; publication of textbooks for special schools was initiated. A majority of the textbooks became popular and were repeatedly published after some additions and alterations. For example, there were seven editions of "Skaitymų knyga" by P. Klimas, and eight editions of "Lietuvių kalbos sintaksė". After the restoration of independence some of these textbooks were published by the Ministry of Education. The work accomplished by Lithuanian intelligentsia in writing and publishing textbooks laid foundations for the national pedagogical system and for the strengthening of statehood in education.
      12  19
  • Publication
    Lietuvos nepriklausomybės atkūrimo akto teisinė prigimtis ir konstitucinė reikšmė
    [Legal nature and constitutional importance of the Act of Restoration of Lithuania's Independence]
    research article
    Šenavičius, Antanas
    Istorija, 1999, t. 40, p. 23-26
    The first World War changed the force relations in Europe. The course of the War, provided possibilities to start negotiating with Germany about the restoration of independence in Lithuania, which had been occupied by the German Army. Efforts to regain independence made political life more active because various organizations, uniting Lithuanian intelligentsia, were founded. In the struggle for independence Lithuanian people needed support from foreign countries. The first opportunity to speak in public appeared in May, 1916, when the nations occupied by Russia addressed the USA President T.W. Wilson. On September 6, 1917, the occupational authorities permitted publication of the newspaper "Lietuvos aidas". Its editor became A. Smetona. The newspaper facilitated the preparatory work for the Lithuanian Conference, which took place in Vilnius on September 18- 22, 1917, with 222 participants attending it. On the 21 st of September, the National Council consisting of 20 people was elected by secret voting. Later it was renamed as the Council of Lithuania, and from June, 1918, it was called the Lithuanian National Council. On the 16th February, 1918, all Council members gathered at Didžioji street 30, Vilnius, and signed a new declaration, which proclaimed the restoration of the independent state of Lithuania, based on democratic principles. Vilnius became the capital. It was stated that Lithuania should cease all former relations with other nations. The fundamentals of the state of Lithuania and its relations with other states were to be defined by the Constituent Seimas, elected in a democratic way by Lithuanian people. The Act of Lithuania's Independence marked the beginning of the statehood restoration. Great efforts and foreign states' assistance were necessary for Lithuania to become an independent state. In August 1918, Germany was defeated in the Western front and this fact had a great impact on the Lithuanian statehood. On October 20, 1918, Chancellor of Germany informed the Presidium of the Lithuanian Council that German Government unconditionally acknowledged the independence of Lithuania and was ready to transfer the ruling of the country to the Lithuanian authorities. In the autumn of 1918, Lithuania started its way towards independence. Though the country was still ruled by the occupational German institutions, some of their functions were transferred to the institutions established by the National Council. The Act of March 11,1990, based on the idea of state continuity, legally, historically, and politically restored and consolidated the present state of Lithuania.
      11  13
  • Publication
    Lituanistikos tyrimo ir studijų centro Čikagoje veikla (1981–1998)
    [Lithuanian Research and Studies Center and its work in Chicago (1981-1989)]
    research article
    Račkauskas, Jonas
    Istorija, 1999, t. 40, p. 27-29
    Leaders and researchers of Pedagogical Institute of Lithuanian language studies showed the initiative to establish Lithuanian Research and Studies Center (LRSC). The first step was made when all Lithuanian science and educational organizations, residing then in the Youth center, were united into one institution. Thus this joint institution became LRSC. Dr. Adolfas Damušis, historian Jonas Dainauskas, director of World Lithuanians archives'Česlovas Grincevičius, priest Vaclovas Gutauskas, Bronius Kviklys, dr. Arūnas Liulevičius, prof. dr. Tomas Remeikis, prof. Jonas Račkauskas, and others were among the founders. The main task of LRSC was to collect materials on Lithuanian culture, literature, and history with the aim to preserve them, provide access to them for research and educational purposes. The archives are constantly being supplemented by rare and valuable materials. The major contribution of recent years was putting in order the educational fund (materials being donated by Lithuanians in emigration) which amounts to 70,000 pages. Many people contributed to the expansion of the activities of this center: dr. Robertas Vitas, LRSC executive vice-chairman, Skirmantė Miglinienė, head of Youth center and archives director, Danutė Petrulytė, LRSC researcher, Arūnas Zailskas, chair of LRSC research services, Kazys Skaisgiris, chair of musical archives, Kazimieras Šablevičius, recording supervisor, Tomas Miglinas, supervising technical services of the center, Ričardas Spitrys and others. The purpose of LRSC is to prepare articles on Lithuania and its people for different encyclopaedias in the USA and Lithuania, to constantly promote Lithuanian art, culture, and scientific achievements in America. For many years the leadership of LRSC has been collecting books and journals which are being sent to Lithuanian libraries and teaching centers. As a result of this, about one million publications have already reached Lithuania.
      10  27