Istorija 1999, t. 42

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  • Publication
    Diplomatinis balius
    [Diplomatic receptions]
    research article
    Gaigalaitė, Aldona
    Istorija, 1999, t. 42, p. 3-11
    On the basis of the archival documents the article describes one of the forms of diplomatic activities, such as receptions, banquets, and parties. The article concentrates on some aspects of receptions, e.g. their character, ceremonial, etiquette, the meaning and importance of food and drink. The collected material confirms that Lithuanian embassies observed international diplomatic traditions. National features were manifested in some details, such as invitation cards, room decoration, cultural aspects of the reception, etc. The documents also reveal that a diplomatic reception provided for Lithuanian diplomats less formal circumstances to solve international problems Lithuania was concerned with, to predict future events and their course before they took some definite shape and development.
      8  12
  • Publication
    Arkivyskupas Mečislovas Reinys ir „T. Aškūnų bei B. Asių kolchozo Moderniojo Cirko biuleteniai“
    [Archbishop Mečislovas Reinys and "The Modern Circus by T. Aškūnai and B. Ašiai Kolkhoz]
    research article
    Vasiliauskienė, Aldona
    Istorija, 1999, t. 42, p. 12-30
    Twenty seven newly-found manuscripts (dated 1945-1947) by Archibishop Mečislovas Reinys "Archbishop Mečislovas Reinys and 'The Modern Circus by T. Aiškūnai and B. Ašiai Kolkhoz'", presented for publication, are unique in their severe criticism of the Soviet power. Bulletins "The Modern Circus of Kolkhoz" disclose a new and deeply human feature of Archbishop M. Reinys whom we usually remember as a stern and composed personality. These documents reveal Archibishop's sense of humor, his gifts to make people who surrounded him remain good-humoured and cheeful during the grave period of the Soviet occupation. In an unusual and original way the above mentioned bulletins reflect the prevailing mood of that period; they also throw a new light upon the outstanding personality of Archbishop M. Reinys, disclosing some unexpected traits of his character.
      22  7
  • Publication
    Edukacinė komisija ir fizikos mokymas senajame Vilniaus universitete
    [Educational Board and teaching physics at Vilnius University]
    research article
    Klimka, Libertas
    ;
    Kivilšienė, Rasa
    Istorija, 1999, t. 42, p. 31-41
    The article acquaints with the instructions of the Educational Board of the Lithuanian-Polish state. The Board was in force in 1773-1794; its instructions concerned mainly sciences and conformed to the aims of the state's economic policy. The article also presents the ways of implementing these instructions in the Department of physics and mathematics at Vilnius University. Firstly, the way of teaching physics was altered focusing more on the experimental side instead of the previously favoured philosophical one, thus making the subject more practical and of applied character. Students were instructed in how to use the equipment. Secondly, the achievements of mathematics were applied to describe the phenomena of physics; consequently, university teachers had to meet new requirements. Finally, new studies of physics and mechanics models as well as the reference library of the physics study were founded and constantly renewed.
      11  17
  • Publication
    Maxo Weberio „idealieji tipai“ ir šiuolaikinė istorijos ir socialinių mokslų filosofija
    [The ideal types of Max Weber and contemporary philosophy of history and social sciences]
    research article
    Norkus, Zenonas
    Istorija, 1999, t. 42, p. 42-48
    The article consists of three parts, the first one containing the exposition of Weber's pronouncements on ideal types and explaining their relations with the Methodenstreit in the German economic science of Weber's time. Weber conceived his theory of ideal types as the supplement to Heinrich Rickert's Neokantian theory of the concept formation accounting for theoretic knowledge in "cultural sciences". Such knowledge had no clear systematic place in Rickert's theory who identified "cultural science" with the "method" of the individualizing concept formation. The price paid by Weber for reliance on Rickert was the conflation of the logical problems of the concept formation sensu strictu with that of methodological problems concerning the rules for the use of theories and models in history and social sciences. So Weber's ideal types can be reconstructed retrospectively in two ways: from the perspective of the modern logic and from that of philosophy of science conceived as the explication of the rules of scientific method. The second part contains the interpretation of Weber's ideal types from the first perspective identifying them with the "extreme" types built via the reduction of the multidimensional property spaces which consist of the properties measurable on the level of the ordinal scale at least. The final third part interprets Weber's ideal typical method as universalization of some features of the method of neoclassical economics, which is considered in the article as the "archetype" for Weber's ideas on ideal type. Neoclassical economics makes liberal use of the ceteris paribus clause as the immunizing device for the protection of its theoretical models. Weber recommends the models with ceteris paribus clause to the historians as the instrument of the identification of the "aberrations" or "deviations" in the observed courses of events from the theoretically predicted ones. The "deviations" thus identified are problems for historical explanation. In Weber's view these problems must be solved not via the modification of the theoretical models themselves, but via the non- systematic (historic) causal judgments. Weber's concept of the ideal-typifying method is criticized on three points: 1) Weber makes no distinction between the mere typological concepts and models, which explicitly specify the relations between the variables. 2) Neoclassical models are unique being based on the theory of rational action which gives them some theoretical validation compensating for their deficit of the pure empirical validity (cf. "principle of charity" as described by Donald Davidson). This does not apply, however, to the other conceptual constructions which Weber considers as "ideal types" too. 3) The underdetermination of the concepts and theories by the empirical evidence applies both to the natural and social sciences. Kuhn'svision of the theoretical change (and that of the "strong program in the sociology of science") implies that contrary to Weber's assumptions the dependence on values subject to the change themselves is not the feature unique to the cultural sciences as Weber maintained.
      14  24
  • Publication
    Moksleivių savivaldos institucijos Lietuvos švietimo sistemos kaitos kontekste
    [Pupils' self-government in the Lithuanian educational system under change]
    research article
    Ignatavičius, Saulius
    Istorija, 1999, t. 42, p. 49-51
    Educational system constantly faces new problems which are predetermined by social changes. In order to function successfully in the changed circumstances, to be active and efficient members of the society, people have to acquire certain competence and skills which can be formed and conveyed through the educational system. In this context school of general education becomes of primary importance. The article has no intention to analyze deeply and comprehensively all the factors related to the educational system as a whole. In the light of M. Fullan's educational theories it aims to analyze some components of school community and their dynamics in the context of Lithuania's school reform. The analysis of the changes in pupils' self-government institutions shows that at the beginning of the educational reform (phases of initiating/implementing) these institutions were perceived as the formal and insignificant ones, having no real influence on school community and the processes of socializing. Present day situation (phase of institutionalization) reveals noticeable qualitative changes in this domain.
      5  4