Istorija 2003, t. 56

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    2003
      7  5
  • Publication
    Geležies lydymo ir apdirbimo radiniai Lieporių 1-oje gyvenvietėje
    [The iron production site in Lieporiai settlement 1]
    research article
    Salatkienė, Birutė
    Istorija, 2003, t. 56, p. 3-16
    Little data can be found about iron smelting in Lithuania in the first millennium AD. Researchers paid more attention to smithy and technologies of ironware production of that period than to the findings reflecting the process of iron smelting. In the hill forts and settlements separate finds of this trade were detected, such as furnaces and their remnants, pieces of slag, and so on; however, findings concerning the whole process of iron smelling at its separate stages were less numerous Lieporiai complex of archaeological monuments (Settlement 1, Settlement 2, and Cemetery, dated 4,h-9lh centuries AD) was recently uncovered near Šiauliai. An iron production site was discovered in Settlement I, and it has been investigated since 1992. Compactly situated archaeological findings display a complete cycle of iron smelting. Among them were iron ore digging pits in clayey yellow sand with accumulation of hydrate iron ore. To wash the extracted ore, a considerable quantity of water was needed, but no natural water source was found near the site. [...]
      16  10
  • Publication
    Tautinis lietuvių atgiminas ir „žydų klausimas“ (XIX a. pabaiga - 1914 m.)
    [The national rebirth and "the Jewish issue" (end of the 19th century-1914)]
    research article
    Truska, Liudas
    Istorija, 2003, t. 56, p. 17-27
    On the basis of periodical press and historical literature, we analyse the attitudes of Lithuanian national movement and its ideological-political forces towards Jews, as well as the development, scope and specific features of anti-Semitism in the country. Over the last decades of the 19th century, when the Lithuanian national movement began to gain strength and "the Lithuanian business" ideas spread widely, Lithuanians began to regard Jews as their competitors. The Lithuanian press of all ideological trends created the stereotypes of "an honest Lithuanian" and "an amoral Jew". The most intolerant was the Catholic wing of the national rebirth; it instigated not only economic enmity but also intensified medieval religious anti-Jewish images and prejudices in the consciousness of people. Democratic movements in Russia and Lithuania at the beginning of the 2O'h century and especially the revolution of 1905-1907 conditioned essential changes in the attitudes towards Jews. The leftist political forces, i.e. the Lithuanian Socialdemocratic Party and the Lithuanian Democratic Party began to treat Jews as their allies in the struggle against the Russian reactionary forces. [...]
      16  9
  • Publication
    Wojskowe aspekty operacji wileńskiej w kwietniu 1919 roku
    [Military aspects of Vilnius operation in April 1919]
    research article
    Snopko, Jan
    Istorija, 2003, t. 56, p. 28-32
    The article throws some light on the Polish army's military operation in Vilnius in the spring of 1919; the basic political aspects of the operation are presented as well. The author also emphasises different viewpoints towards Vilnius: for Lithuanians, Vilnius was an inseparable part of the Lithuanian state, while the majority of Poles strongly believed that this city belonged to Poland. Many people in the newly reborn Poland did not imagine their state without Vilnius and Lvov, as they could not imagine it without Krakow and Poznan. Partly these ideas could be viewed as sentiments in favour of the former Lithuanian-Polish Commonwealth; however, the decisive factor was the number of Polish population in the above mentioned cities, and in Vilnius the number was greater than in Lodz or Byalystok, for example. [...]
      10  10
  • Publication
    Prelato Konstantino Olšausko byla ir žiniasklaida 1929-1930 m.
    [Attempts to compromise prelate Konstantinas Olšauskas in 1929-1930]
    research article
    Pukienė, Vida
    Istorija, 2003, t. 56, p. 33-38
    The authoritarian regime of A. Smetona became firmly established in Lithuania after the coup d'ėtat on December 17, 1926. A. Smetona tried to weaken economic, political, and cultural position of his ex-allies, the Christian Democrats. In 1928, nationalization of schools started. Prelate K. Olšauskas, Chairman of the Catholic association Saulė, which possessed most of schools, opposed such Governmental policies, especially the methods of schools' nationalization. The teacher Stanislava Danilovičiūtė- Ustijanauskienė, who maintained good relationship with prelate K. Olšauskas, was murdered on September 16, 1928. The prelate became the main suspect. Although there was no concrete evidence, this accident provided good opportunities to lessen the authority of the Catholic Church, the Christian Democrats and the clergy itself in the eyes of society. Free left-wing press aroused psychosis which was useful for A. Smetona's authoritarian regime. [...]
      18  16