Istorija 2003, t. 57

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  • Publication
    Įmoviniai kirviai Lietuvoje: bendroji apžvalga
    [Celts in Lithuania: a review]
    research article
    Istorija : Lietuvos aukštųjų mokyklų mokslo darbai. Vilnius : Vilniaus pedagoginis univ.., 2003, [t.] 57, p. 3-9
    The articles presents a part of research dealing with the structure of cells, their main parameters and their spread in the archaeological monuments. The structural analysis of these instruments shows that next to sockets and edges, blades are to be considered as an inseparable part of these instruments...
      19  26
  • Publication
    Sanitarinių įrenginių raida Lietuvoje
    [The development of toilet arrangements in Lithuania (according to historical and archaeological data)]
    research article
    Rėklaitytė, Ieva
    Istorija, 2003, t. 57, p. 10-16
    The author of the article aims to analyse the hygiene and sanitation conditions in Lithuania from the Medieval times up to the end of the 19th century. Archaeological and historical data allow to reveal the diversity of toilet arrangements during centuries - from a primitive cesspit in the backyard of buildings to a rather complicated latrine chute in castles. While analysing the development of a privy, it became obvious that a significant problem of medieval and post medieval towns was poor sanitation conditions which were strongly related to the lack of a properly arranged sanitation system. Even the wealthy partoftown population sometimes suffered from the lack of toilets. The example of Kernavė shows us a clear picture of a 13th—14th century town - without sanitation arrangements, heaps of dung in the yards or behind the buildings, etc. Only one primitive toilet was found during the excavations, i.e. two wooden planks covering the hole. [...]
      9  12
  • Publication
    Vokiečių ordino Dubysos pilies statyba
    [Bau der burg Dubysa von dem Deutschen orden]
    research article ;
    Nutautaitė, Justina
    Istorija : mokslo darbai. Vilnius : Vilniaus pedagoginio universiteto leidykla, 2003, T. 57, p. 17-25
      19  20
  • Publication
    Renkamos Vilniaus vaitijos genezė: XVI a. pabaiga ar XVII a. pradžia
    [The genesis of the elected Vilnius Vaitas Office: is it the end of the 16th century or the beginning of the 17th century?]
    research article
    Ragauskas, Aivas
    Istorija, 2003, t. 57, p. 26-35
    The article analyses a part of the letter of L. Sapiega, Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL), written on the 5,h of January, 1590, to K. Radvila Perkūnas, Vilnius vaivada (voivode), about the situation in the Vaitas (Polish w6jt, German Vb/gt) Office. Relevant materials let claim that information presented in the letter is credible. The available data does not give concrete indications as to the precise date when the inhabitants of Vilnius nominated four candidates for the position of vaitas - it could have happened soon after S. Sabina's death or when M. Borziminski got the privilege to fulfil the duties of vaitas. Among the four nominees were P. Szczerbic, a Polish lawyer, J. Rudamina and J. Keniska, catholic assessors, and B. Rostmaticus, a catholic clerk of the Council. The existing fragmentary information about the candidates leads to the conclusion that P. Szczerbic and J. Rudamina were noted for better qualities and abilities than M. Borziminski who finally became vaitas. The former had a better legal education, the latter was wealthier, and both of them had considerable experience of municipality work. In general, both of them were considered to be more reliable vaitas. [...]
      27  15