Darnioji daugiakalbystė / Sustainable Multilingualism 2019, nr. 15

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  • Publication
    Should schools undermine or sustain multilingualism? An analysis of theory, research, and pedagogical practice
    [Mokyklos daugiakalbystę turėtų slopinti ar stiprinti? Teorijos, tyrimų ir pedagoginės praktikos analizė]
    research article
    Cummins, Jim
    Darnioji daugiakalbystė, 2019, nr. 15, p. 1-26
    Most school systems around the world prioritize the teaching of languages and aim to develop bilingual or multilingual proficiencies among their students. However, in a large number of contexts, schools also systematically and intentionally “undermine” the potential of immigrant-background and minoritized students to develop multilingual abilities. This undermining of multilingualism operates either by explicitly prohibiting students from using their home languages (L1) within the school or through ignoring the languages that students bring to school (benign neglect). In some cases, exclusion of students’ L1 is rationalized on the grounds that maintenance of L1 will hinder students’ integration into the mainstream society. In other cases, exclusion is based on the conviction that there is competition between languages and use of the L1 either in school or home will reduce students’ exposure to the school language (L2). The validity of this time-on-task argument is critically analyzed in the present paper. I argue that the research shows no consistent relationship between immigrant students’ academic achievement (in L2) and use of L1 in the home or in the school. By contrast, several research syntheses have highlighted the positive academic outcomes of bilingual programs for minoritized students and also the feasibility of implementing multilingual or translanguaging pedagogies in the mainstream classroom.
      41  49
  • Publication
    Educational reforms and language planning quandary in Algeria: an illustration with Arabization
    [Švietimo reformų ir kalbų planavimo keblumai Alžyre: arabizacijos atvejis]
    research article
    Gherzouli, Ikhlas
    Darnioji daugiakalbystė, 2019, nr. 15, p. 27-47
    The paper aims to present a critical review of language policy development in Algeria since its independence (1962) to present time. It takes the policy of Arabization, an important turning point in Algerian history that was troubled with serious problems, as an example of language planning in the country. Data was gathered from policy documents, laws, and newspaper articles. It was then coded into themes before it was analysed employing a documentary research method. To provide a methodical discussion, the first part of the paper explores language policy and planning in Algeria. The second part discusses the impact of Arabization on the country’s current state of policy development in light of the debates over the national educational reforms of 2003. The third part highlights the quandary that language planners face during the processes of language planning and policy making. Lastly, the paper concludes with an evaluation of the process of language policy development in the country. The paper argues that in order to foster sustainable multilingualism and achieve effective educational reforms, a keener recognition of Algerian linguistic diversity by the government is imperative.
      33  22
  • Publication
    A comparative study of the gap between de-jure and de-facto language policies: the case of Kyrgyzstan and Hungary
    [Atotrūkio tarp de jure ir de facto kalbų politikos lyginamasis tyrimas: Kirgizijos ir Vengrijos atvejis]
    research article
    Mambetaliev, Askar
    Darnioji daugiakalbystė, 2019, nr. 15, p. 48-69
    The purpose of this study was to find the main factors that guide language policies and discover correlations between top-down and bottom-up ideologies in the context of Hungary and Kyrgyzstan. To accomplish this, the study created a database of relevant official documents, photos of linguistic landscapes and qualitative data. The study analyzed the documented top-down decisions from historical perspectives, and then compared them with the data collected from interviews and surveys, and from the collection of photos. The participants included both high-ranking political figures, professors, students and random citizens. Results showed that the official policies often do not comprehensively match with the people’s beliefs, attitudes and desires. Findings also imply that using either document analysis, or the method of linguistic landscape, or qualitative methods alone, might not sufficiently validate the results in the absence of each other, since errors may top up from various discrepancies between top-down and bottom-up arrangements, as well as from overt and covert ideologies.
      44  22
  • Publication
    Attitudes and language use of (potential) new speakers of a minoritized language: the case of adults learning West Frisian in formal courses
    [Naujų (potencialių) marginalizuotų kalbų vartotojų pažiūros ir kalbos vartojimas: vakarų fryzų kalbos formalių kursų suaugusiems atvejis]
    research article
    Belmar, Guillem
    Darnioji daugiakalbystė, 2019, nr. 15, p. 70-88
    Adults learning a minoritized language are potential new speakers, that is “adults who acquire a socially and communicatively consequential level of competence and practice in a minority language” (Jaffe, 2015; see also O'Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015). New speakers’ research has become quite common recently, marking a shift from traditional notions of speakerness in minority contexts, built around the Fishmanian discourse of reversing language shift (see Kubota, 2009). The new speaker —actually neo-speaker— is one of the seven categories put forward by Grinevald and Bert (2011), who considered them central to language revitalization. Answering the call for more data on new speakers of minoritized languages in O'Rourke, Pujolar, & Ramallo, 2015, this research aims to start the debate on the new speakers of Frisian (see Belmar, 2018; Belmar, Eikens, Jong, Miedema, & Pinho, 2018; and Belmar, Boven, & Pinho, 2019) by means of a questionnaire filled in by adults learning the language in the evening courses offered by Afûk. This article presents an analysis of their backgrounds, their attitudes towards the language, and their language use.
      52  20
  • Publication
    L’apposition dans la production ecrite des apprenants Lituaniens en FLE
    [Apozicija lietuvių besimokančių prancūzų kalbos rašto darbuose]
    research article
    Kazlauskienė, Vitalija
    Darnioji daugiakalbystė, 2019, nr. 15, p. 89-104
    L’acquisition de la compétence lexicale est complexe, dans la mesure où il ne suffit pas pour les apprenants de distinguer la forme et la signification d’un élément lexical pour savoir comment l’intégrer correctement dans le contexte langagier. Cette compétence suppose de comprendre les propriétés de combinatoire lexicale et grammaticale. L’analyse de la production écrite des apprenants lituaniens en FLE, qui est réalisée à partir du corpus annoté, se focalise sur l’apposition. Elle se réfère à un nom auquel elle apporte un complément d'information sur une qualité ou nature. Le choix de l’apposition en tant qu’objet d’étude tient au fait qu’elle se distingue par son emploi particulier dans la langue française au titre de l’expansion du nom et permet de comparer son utilisation par les apprenants à celle des natifs. Son emploi dans la langue des apprenants du niveau analysé n’est pas très fréquent, dont la question se pose de quelle manière les apprenants lituaniens transmettent l’information sans apposition. Nous nous fixons comme tâche, sans prétendre à l’exhaustivité, de faire le point sur les différents emplois des appositions, leurs particularités et correspondances à l’emploi des natifs dans les productions écrites des apprenants du français comme langue étrangère. L’apposition, en tant que constituant du SN est ainsi analysée du point de vue syntaxique, en prenant en compte les constructions correctes, erronées ou incertaines. Les écrits des élèves nous ont permis d’orienter les réflexions didactiques en direction de l’emploi général des appositions dans le corpus d’apprenants et relever la construction typique et propre à l’interlangue.
      19  31