Browsing Grupės ir aplinkos / Groups and Environments 2009, nr. 1 by: Affiliation (by Author) "Yale University (USA), email@example.com"
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Grupė kaip dinaminė sistema : nuo ko pradėti?Publication[A Group as a Dynamical System: a Possible a Starting Point]This article outlines the nature of the observations and modelling which are necessary in order to obtain a well defined characterization of a sub-cultural group. The general rule indicates that for a useful characterization of a group it is necessary to describe not only its state but also the way the group interacts with its environment, i.e. the rest of the society. To understand the dynamics of a group it is necessary to study these characterizations at more than one time instant. With regard to the first point, it makes a significant difference what variables to consider when describing the state of a group. On the one hand, the variables considered by the press and other actors in the environment of the group may not all be important; on the other hand, the same variables may not be sufficient to characterize either the group or its interaction with the environment. The second point reveals what is necessary to begin defining the functions that allow of a causal explanation of the behavior of a group. Only after constructing a complete – even if approximate – model of a group can a researcher decide if both the observations and the theorizing are on the right track. 35 62
Grupių elgesio modeliavimo link : naujieji pagonysPublication[Towards modelling group behaviours : neo-pagan community]In this article we describe the properties and behaviour of a small group of Lithuanian neopagans. The information was obtained through both observations and a series of in-depth interviews, the latter organized in accord with a questionnaire constructed to elucidate group values and important interactions with the group environment. The information was collected and organized as guided by a dynamical systems approach, where each individual of the group is treated as a system whose total environment consists of all the other individuals and also the more general environment common to all the group members. This approach naturally groups the interactions between the chosen system and its environment into system inputs and system outputs, which however are strongly modified by the system state. In turn, changes in the system state are produced by system inputs, which in turn may come about due to earlier system outputs directed to the environment. Thus feedback loops which either enhance or suppress selected behaviours can and do arise.[...] 54 58
Lessons from a Hippie Paradise Glimpsed Through a Keyhole (1)Publication[Pamokos, įgytos pažvelgus pro rakto skylutę į hipių rojų (1)]The need to make meaningful comparisons between different subcultural groups existing in various social contexts, which are being studied by different researchers, requires correspondingly meaningful communications between those researchers. This paper proposes an approach that introduces a sufficiently systematic structure to the observations to make comparisons possible without constraining individual researchers in their interpretations. 42 60
Pamokos, įgytos pažvelgus pro rakto skylutę į hipių rojų (2)Publication[Lessons from a Hippie Paradise Glimpsed Through a Keyhole (2)]Because there is a close relationship between observations and theory, in this paper we presented examples of ethnographic information viewed within a dynamical systems approach as applied to study the behavior of a small hippy community in Lithuania during the Soviet era. This approach invites organization of the domain of observation into systems, environments and interactions as a way to deal with complex systems in a manageable way and yet maintain consistency between incomplete descriptions, the usual situation in field work. The first section concentrates on the description of individuals as systems, pointing out the information needed to describe their states and responses to interactions coming from their environments. The second section emphasizes the definition of interactions among the subsystems, particularly the influences that individuals exert on their environments. As this is a preliminary report, neither analysis is yet complete: the work has yet to include all the individuals making up the group and the number of variables needs to be increased. Nevertheless we feel that even the incomplete examples are sufficient to indicate that the introduction of systems concepts, which then structure the ethnographic information into states, expression variables, and influence variables, has considerable utility. While it is yet to be convincingly demonstrated, it appears that it may be possible to relate the essentials of group phenomena to the interplay of self-expression variables and influence variables between the group members in the course of forging a group identity. By providing a common informational structure for describing groups such a systems oriented approach should provide a natural framework for making comparisons between different subcultural groups, not only for the Lithuanian ‘hippie’ subculture of the late 1960s and early 1970s as discussed here. 47 70